This write up is an analytical paper focusing on the Realism, Liberalism and Marxism as the most important theories of international relations and every theory and ideology had a great impact in different era of time in the World history…
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This research will begin with the statement that according to the theory of realism, self interest is the motivating force behind world politics and hence there exists a competition among various stake holders and parties in the global scenario for safeguarding their self interests. In a society based on the principles of realism, moral values, ideological concerns and social considerations have less importance, whereas the national interest and security of the nation is always given the prime importance. Realism presents a materialistic approach to the working of things and considers the material benefits the ultimate target of all kinds of political and social struggles. The theory of realism has given rise to various other theories of international relations, of which power politics is the most widely studied. Power politics derives its basic ideology from realism and extends the safeguarding of interests of the nation to promoting aggression against other nations. According to political realism, there are certain rules and laws which govern the political scenario in society and these laws are deeply rooted in the human nature. Therefore the understanding of laws of human nature is imperative for improving the society. Human nature is perhaps the most consistent trait humans have because it’s the same as it was in old civilizations and thus the theory of politics was developed in ancient times. The various aspects of realism are based on ascertainment of facts and their extensive analysis. A foreign policy based on the principles of realism is never ambiguous and is clear in the consequences and future scenario which it tends to create. Therefore the policies based on realism do not serve long term objectives. Realism defines interests in terms of power with no questions of moral qualities and cultural or traditional preferences; realism presents a very realistic picture of the global political scenario in which the nations and states which have power do not care about the morals and values set by other cultures or the international community as a whole, for them power struggle is the deciding factor in all situations. Therefore the nations should learn to protect their interests by becoming powerful or by siding with the ones who have the power because this is the only way of survival in the world. Realism gives very less importance to moral values and traditions because of the belief that actions are judged by their consequences, therefore an actions which is taken to safeguard the moral values is never justified in realism if it puts the national security at risk. Morals cannot be made a part of the realist theory or international relations because ‘moral values’ is an extensively relative term with different interpretations in different societies and cultures therefore religion, moral values, traditions and culture does not and should not have any sort of involvement in the political dealings of a statesman (Stremmel, 2004). The theory of realism traces its history back to ancient Chinese literature and hence it has influenced the global political scenario from the very beginning of human civilization. Sun Tzu, an ancient Chinese scholar in his book the Art of War used realism to defend various war strategies of that time. Greek historian Thucydides is considered as the father of the theory of realism and he for the first time came up with the concept that might is always right and moral and ethical grounds are never considered in war and international politics. Another ancient scholar who based his teachings and writings on the theory of realism is Chanakya, the teacher of the first emperor of united India, Chandragupta Maurya. It is believed that it was the influence of the teachings of Chanakya which motivated Chandragupta to conquer the various parts of subcontinent and form a powerful and united empire in India. The teachings of Chanakya were based on the concept of power politics and he always convinced Chandragupta that the only way of survival in this world is by seizing immense power and maintaining an aggressive stance against
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