In the essay “The Cold War and U. S. Diplomacy” the author discusses the US-Turkey relationship, which came into existence with the second Cairo Conference and Turkey’s entrance to the Second World War in support of the allies…
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The diplomatic doctrine President Truman followed was that United States would provide political, economic, and military service to all democratic nations which were under the threat of external or internal authoritarian forces (Milestones: 1945-1952. In the initial years, America really protected the interests of its ally Turkey. It was the nature of America to manipulate its foreign policies for its own advantage. However, it never tried to take any undue advantage from the relation with Turkey unlike it did in Afghanistan. American policy after the Truman declaration was always in favor of Turkey. As America never wanted the Soviet Union to grow bigger than it and the communist party to spread to other parts of the world, it decided to support Turkey; both politically and financially. American foreign policy was thus aimed at promoting democracy in its friendly nations. As Carpenter (1999) points out, though Turkey faced some real threats from the Soviet Union like the overpowering of the current government with a communist government, Turkey overcame them with American support and moved to a democratic form of government from the single party government that existed. In return to the support and help rendered by the United States during Cold War, Turkey agreed to send its forces to take part in the Korean War. Also, America provided all support to Turkey to become a member of NATO. Turkey became a founding member of the Central Treaty Organization. After these initial years, the relation between the duo began to deteriorate gradually; though for a short period of time. According to Carpenter (1999), the main reason for the break up was the attack by Turkey on Cyprus on the pretext of saving the ruling government from the imminent coup by army. It was an evident breach of the international law and the UN charter. Moreover, it was against the American policy of opposition against aggression because Turkey was pointlessly attacking Cyprus. Though the United States was supposed to adopt stringent measures against its alley as the lack of such measures would invite widespread criticism, the American Congress managed to reduce the measures to a meager ban on arm sales to Turkey. Still, the step resulted in creating too much tension and mistrust in the relation between the duo. However, the action of the US can be justified on the ground that Turkey violated the agreements and international law (cited in ‘Turkish invasion and Cyprus occupation’, 2005). When all these tensions ended, the Turkish leaders once again felt the need to be closer to the US. For, an ally like the US was essential to ensure the future security of Turkey in the Middle East.
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Though they had been allies against the Fascist powers during the war, Stalin and the Soviet Union soon emerged as a threat to the greatest freedom that the United States held dear: democracy. In preaching communist values, Joseph Stalin represented a threat to not only the freedom of Americans, but also to the rest of the world.
Carter’s response and application of his doctrine in the form of actions he took to support his claims are discussed in detail. The paper also assesses the effects of his diplomatic efforts on US and other countries as well. Keywords: Cold War, USSR invasion, Carter doctrine The Cold War and U.S Diplomacy Introduction At the end of World War II, USSR and US were the two superpowers.
The author states that Truman managed to ensure their participation in the founding conference of United Nations Organization in San Francisco by sending a special emissary Harry Hopkins to Moscow. However, the San Francisco Conference ended in June 1945 after most of its participating nations, including the Soviet Union.
The researcher states that following the ending of the World War II, the U.S. and the Soviet Union surfaced in a tight bipolar clash. It is added that in 1947, the Cold War began when the U.S. overtly stated its resistance to Soviet expansion. Nonetheless, as the 1960s drew near, it became obvious that the impacts of these powers were diminishing.
U.S and Soviet Union. This implies that Kennedy had quite a challenging role to play in this context, especially with regard to the foreign policy. During his time as President, Kennedy had to face many intense situations where the world was on the verge of another world war, but owing much to the diplomatic skills of Kennedy, the situation was taken control of and issue was resolved (Reeves 1993).
The overall objective of the U.S foreign policy was to stop communism and did not change noticeably from one doctrine to another. Only the costs and the intensity changed. Although a number of doctrines were articulated, they are just variations on the prime “containment” policy or the Truman Doctrine.
It was with this understanding of this scenario that President Truman of USA and his experts identified that the US had to become engaged. And it was from this understanding that the Truman Doctrine was made. So, in 1947 President Truman released a Presidential pronouncement presenting immediate cost-effective and army aid to Greece, experienced by Communist insurrection, and to Turkey, under stress from Communist development in the Mediterranean Sea and beyond and beyond position.
In addition to this, he also played a major role in several foreign policies which made him a bit controversial (Kennedy & Sedgwick, 2006). It was common knowledge that Kennedy did not support communism. For this reason, he permitted the CIA to invade Cuba (Presidentprofiles.com, 2013).
It is vital to mote that the globe was also experiencing conflicts on every bend as nuclear terrors were threatening from numerous states. As the president of USA, Nixon had the task to make sure world tranquility and counteract the nuclear threat.