The Congress should be aware that the planned pipeline will change the livelihoods of many US citizens since it will pass through main rivers which supply safe drinking water and agricultural water to farmers…
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Currently, the U.S energy policy has allowed Canada to ship oil to main refineries to the U.S. Several options of energy sources to the U.S which include hydroelectric power, coal power, geothermal power and importation of crude oil from Canada. Hydroelectric and geothermal energy is more environmentally friendly and cheap to produce since it is a sustainable source. Coal power may be damaging to the environment but it is cheap to exploit. Biodiesels energy is friendly to ecosystem but may not meet the U.S energy demands. The U.S government should invest in hydroelectric energy and geothermal energy and stop the plans of building the Keystone XL pipeline from Canada. Hydroelectric energy is more reliable since the US has many rivers and dams. Geothermal power is sustainable in the long run. Statement of the purpose The US $ 13 billion keystone pipeline system will play a critical role in linking Canadian crude oil suppliers with the largest refining markets in the US. However, there have been public concerns on the dirty sand oil emissions which may damage the ecosystem. The proposed keystone Gulf Coast Expansion project is approximate 1661 mile, 36 inch crude oil pipeline that begins in Alberta and terminating in Texas after passing through Oklahoma. Introduction On Nov, 4th, 2011, TransCanada announced plans to support the proposed legislation within the State of Nebraska to move the key Keystone XL pipeline project forward. If passed, the legislation will see a pipeline route which avoids sand hills is developed. Nebraskans supports the development of the Keystone XL pipeline and at the same time TransCanada has announced that the Keystone XL route has changed and Nebraskans will play a key role in determining the final route (Friends of Earth 2). Cost benefit analysis of Keystone XL pipeline The benefits of Keystone XL are certain when approved. The pipeline remains the best option for producers to supply crude oil to US Gulf Coast refineries hence it has a strategic importance to the US economy. The US economy consumes 15 million barrels of oil each day and imports 10 to 11 million barrels per day. The industry forecasts indicate that crude oil demand in the US will increase over a period of the next three decades hence secure supply of oil is important in achieving US energy security. TransCanada has already set plans to contract more than 13,000 Americans to work on the construction of the pipeline which include pipefitters, welders, mechanics and electricians. Additional 7,000 jobs will be created in the manufacturing sector will local businesses along the pipeline will benefit from 118,000 occasional jobs which will lead to increase in demand for local goods and services (FOX NEWS.COM 2). Costs The pipeline would double the imports of dirty tar sands oil in to United States. Pollution from tar sands oil are higher than pollutions from conventional oil since the levels of carbon dioxide emissions are three times higher than those emitted by the conventional oils. The pipeline would add the climate-damaging emissions to the US (FOX NEWS.COM 3). Water waste During the tar sands oil extraction, vast water resources are required to separate the extracted product, bitumen, sand, silt, and clay. It takes three times amount of water to extract one unit of oil (Morton 4). Tar sands operations use
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Tragic and disastrous accidents recurrently leave a complicated trail of human and mechanical errors. A lot about human performance and system functioning can be studied in hindsight by having panels of experts examine the accident sequences; reviewing them and the incidents that triggered them can lead to a clarification of the origins and identification of what actions went wrong
US Policy toward the Kazakhstan
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This paper will give an over view of U.S energy policy in relation to the origin, reasons for the policy formulation and policy Acts that have been passed.
The history of the U.S Energy Policy dates back to 1930s when issues of climate
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