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What did the peace of Westphalia entail and how far did it mark a significant shift in contemporary European international relations - Essay Example

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Research studies have marked that the change from city- state to Empire, from empire to feudalism, from feudalism to sovereign state help the researcher to understand various changes that happened in international politics as well international relations. …
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What did the peace of Westphalia entail and how far did it mark a significant shift in contemporary European international relations
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"What did the peace of Westphalia entail and how far did it mark a significant shift in contemporary European international relations"

Download file to see previous pages As Benjamin Straumann comments, “This is a notion of sovereignty that is based on an analogy between states and individuals, deriving its force from the application of liberal political theory to the international realm” (Straumann, 2008). The Westphalia agreement is acknowledged to be the beginning of modern International relations (IR) on the basis of the acknowledgment of state sovereignty. In Medieval Europe, feudal authorities occupied a remarkable geographical space accompanied with various political organizations. Networks of rival authorities placed on top in territorial spaces. Church and its authorities often practiced claims to jurisdiction. In the beginning, the Thirty Years War started as a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics became a serious battle which included major European forces such as Spain, France, Germany, Sweden and Denmark. Scholars of international relations have widely accepted the Peace of Westphalia as shorthand to determine the system of states which formed the world in the present day. Before the Thirty Years War, European political order was a combination of the traditions of Roman Empire and the Church. The U.S efforts to built Free State in Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq highlight the relevance of Westphalia settlement. Historical upbringing: From the Thirty Years’ War to the Westphalia treaty The Thirty years War explore some remarkable changes that happened in the field of international relations and the conflicts related with political organizations and other institutions like church, lords, empires and Pope. The war was a thrash about two major parties like the Universalists and the Particulrists actors. Hendryk Spruyt observes that “The neither jurisdictions neither discrete jurisdiction overlapped-nor exclusive – different authorities might claim final jurisdiction on the same matter” (Spruyt, 1994). Universalists includes the emperor and Spanish King belonged to the Habsburg dynasty and the Particularist actors having rich ideological and political support from Denmark. In spite of the political support from Denmark, Particularist actors have enjoyed the political and religious support from, Dutch Republic, France, and Sweden as well the German princes. Exponents of Universalists have exposed their faith in Church of Rome and they admitted the power of Pope and the power of Christendom. Andreas Osiander’s quotes showing the prevalence of the conflicts between Universalists and the Particularists. Author reminds that “These actors rejected imperial over lordship and (for the most part) the authority of the Pope, upholding instead the right of all states to full independence (“sovereignty”)” (Gale 2001). Universalists have exposed their willingness to entertain Pope’s dominance in determining the sovereignty of states. Unlike Universalists, their opponents have required the formation of a free sovereign state having full independence. Military conflicts caused devastation to the civilian population. Studies have mentioned that “it is estimated that at least half of the German and Bohemian people lost their lives due to starvation, diseases and brutal attacks from soldiers bent on pillage” (Franca Filho, n.d.). The Peace of Westphalia refers to the couple of agreements named Instrumentum Pacis Monasteriense and the Instrumentum Pacis ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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