1. How did Europeans profit from the opium trade in China? Did the British have the right to trade freely in any commodity? There were a number of ways that Europeans profited from the opium trade in China. The first European interaction with the Chinese opium trade occurred in the early 17th century as British ships arrived on the shore of China (Fairbank)…
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Still, Europeans were not allowed to import opium directly into China. As a means of circumventing these trade restrictions and gaining profit, the British had to devise elaborate means of importing opium. In these regards, Europeans would be tea in Canton and use opium that would be smuggled in on British ships to pay for the opium (Fairbank). The high value tea had in Europe resulted in opium functioning as a useful means of gaining profit. In the early 19th century the Chinese ban of trading this commodity was lifted (Waley). Still, a number of years later further restrictions would be placed on this commodity exchange. During this period the then current Chinese dynasty had undergone a shift towards Confucianism, resulting in the restriction of European import of opium (Waley). These restrictions would result in threats to European profits on opium trade in China. As a means of continuing to profit on opium, the British would ultimately involve themselves in the First and Second Opium Wars with China. These wars would result in the opening of British trade of opium into China. 2. How did nationalism serve the needs of statesmen and bureaucrats rather than those of the general population, especially as more people were allowed to vote and hold public office? To a large degree, nationalism served the needs of statesmen and bureaucrats rather than the general population. Nationalism emerged during the early 19th century as statesmen in France sought means of uniting a populace in revolution (Leoussi). During the French Revolution nationalism these statesmen were able to implement nationalistic impulses as a means of inciting riots and elevating their political power (Hobsbawm). With the subsequent shifts in government these individuals assumed control under these nationalistic tendencies, ultimately using this political strategy as much for personal gain as public interest (Hobsbawm). The American Revolution was even clearer in its implementation of nationalism as a means of advancing the interests of statesmen (Leoussi). In these regards, businessmen and bureaucrats with significant that faced significant economic or political gain in establishing independence from Great Britain implemented nationalism as a means of uniting the populace (Hobsbawm). This period of American history had seen a great amount of public debate over independence with loyalists and patriots debating the opposing positions (Leoussi). In this climate, individuals such as Thomas Paine through his ‘Common Sense’ pamphlets were able to incite the public through nationalistic tendencies as a means of gaining increased public attention or political power. With the increasing amount of nations that shifted to democratic structures allowing people to vote and hold public office the impacts of nationalism as advancing the needs of statesmen and bureaucrats became even more pronounced. This is because the democratic structure opened itself more thoroughly to statesman achieving political power through igniting nationalistic impulses in the voting populace. 3. What were the goals and principles of the Congress of Vienna? How did delegates from the great powers respond to the grievances of their people? There were a number of goals and principles of the Congress of Vienna. From an overarching perspective the Congress of Vienna functioned as a means of European states to address many of the complex issues that had
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