Running head: Santa Cruz Santa Cruz Name Institution Santa Cruz Introduction Andres de Santa Cruz Calahumana was born on December 5, 1792 in Huarina, Bolivia and was the President of Peru and Bolivia. He provided his services as Supreme Protector of the brief Peru-Bolivian Confederation (1836-1839), and his alliance was responsible for its formation…
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Thus the role of Santa Cruz towards the realization of the Peru-Bolivia Confederation was the key and for which he pursued various actions and strategies. Actions and Strategies Sucre was replaced in 1829 by Marshal Andres de Santa Cruz as a president; he held on to the post till the next decade. Gamarra and Santa Cruz both believed and were unanimous regarding their agreement that Peru and Bolivia should not have been partitioned and should be undone. Santa Cruz who was the president of Bolivia believed that an achievement of a political union with Peru was a key and thus political unrest in Peru enabled Santa Cruz to take advantage of it. Santa Cruz best opportunity arrived when Peruvian President Luis Jose de Orbegoso in 1835 asked him to back him up in the fight with the rebel army of Felipe Santiago Salaverry. It was during the Battle of Yanacocha (August 13, 1835) when Santa Cruz successfully overpowered Peruvian caudillo Agustin Gamarra and Salaverry at the Battle of Uchumayo (February 4, 1836). Peruvian southern department’s congress (Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cuzco and Puno) had collected at the inauguration of Santa Cruz at Sicuani plus the declaration of the founding of republic of South Peru was made on March 17, 1836. The Republic of North Peru was created at a related congregation at Huaura of the northern departments (Amazonas, Junin, La Libertad and Lima) on August 11, 1836 of which Gen. Jose Miguel de Velasco was made president, after which these states were then joined to Bolivia. At all times he was made the supreme protector of the newly born state, a president with full powers. These states had large, measure of autonomy but still under the absolute control of Santa Cruz. Both North and South Peru documented Santa Cruz as a Supreme Protector with a far-reaching power, which enabled him to create on October 28, 1836 the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. Bolivian Congress with both legislatures of North and South Peru were summoned to the city of Tacna and so as to establish a new State constitution. A pact was signed on May 1, 1837 where he was named as a supreme protector for the period of ten years. Since the confederation’s inauguration it was seen by the influential politicians as a threat in the neighboring countries due to two reasons: firstly, because of its wide territorial area and secondly due to the noticeable risk that that kind of a posh state posed to be to that territory. Support of confederation by Argentine and Chilean rebels under exile also led to Argentina and Chile waging war each on their own to fight the confederation. Chilean Declaration of War Marshal Andres de Santa Cruz made attempts at negotiating with Chile instead of immediately going to war with it. Mariano Egana was sent as plenipotentiary by the congress of Chile so as to come to a unanimous conclusion regarding a treaty of whose basis could be various areas like the pay back of remaining international debts that Peru owed to Chile, the control of the outstanding armies, commence agreements, indemnization to Chile for the Freire Expedition and the disbanding of the Confederation. Everything was decided by Santa Cruz except the dissolution. Chile declared war on December 28, 1836. The major world powers that were interested in that area, like Great Britain, France and the United States which was not favorable
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The intention of this study is the Santa Monica Mountain (S.M.M) as one of the famous Mountains situated in the city of California. The area is garlanded with a variety of Oak Wood Land and scrub plants community. Among these plants, some of them are very precious and are facing a serious threat to their species. Some of these plants are also used as ornamental plants in the house.
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These cliques of individuals bear a strong attachment and background to the community in question. Often, these people have a cultural and social affiliation that is either extremely different or in line with the current inhabitants of the state or community.
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Santa Barbara is often referred as American Riviera. No matter in which country, culture or climatic condition you belong to, Santa Barbara offers everything to the tourists based on their tastes. This paper briefly analyses Santa Barbara as a tourist
The city population was 448,607 as of the 2000 U.S. census. As of the 2005 census estimate, the citys population was 494,236, with a metropolitan population of 797,940. In 2005, Albuquerque ranked as the
From a practical standpoint, the results of the Univariate hypothesis test showed that respondents perceived the menu were significantly lower than 6 and this can be reflected by the mean of 4.508641975 for X14
During the years 11836 to 1839, he fought hard to establish the newly emerged republics of Latin America. The tale of his life begins from confused metamorphosis from a rule of Spanish colonies to the establishment of Bolivia and Peru. He had the essence of an Andean Caudillo, whose armed forces were his ideas for governance, a builder who made sure to give the country a well administered and robust system of government was the chief leader in realization of the Confederation of Peru-Bolivia.1 On his second recall to Bolivia, he became the president of the tumultuous state of Bolivia on 24th May, 1829.
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