This paper enumerates three changes in effects of warfare on combatants due to new technological advancements Since the Second Industrial Revolution. These changes are multidimensional and complicated…
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These changes are multidimensional and complicated. Most of the ideas and opinions have been propounded by the means of an example-based approach. Dependable sources for reference purpose have bee carefully selected and utilized. Research Question How have the effects of warfare on combatants changed as a result of new technologies of warfare since the Second Industrial Revolution (c. 1850)? Thesis Statement The changes in the effects of warfare on the combatants due to the utilization of post Second Industrial Revolution weapons technology have made them more impersonal, lethal, cruel, and confident. Armed Conflict Becomes More Impersonal and Lethal The effect: Since the Second Industrial Revolution warfare has become increasingly dependent on technology. This dependence has caused armed conflict to become progressively more impersonal and lethal. Discussion: The modification in the nature of armed conflicts is due to the fact that the combatants are becoming more impervious and also they are lethally very much enabled. In the ancient and medieval ages, combatants used to fight each other in battlefields that generally did not cover the civilian areas. One-to-one battles were not unknown between the warriors and that used to be a matter of glory. Weapons like swords and spears could kill only one combatant at a time. But mass killing by using incendiary bombing, as had been seen in Germany and Japan, testify the fact that the new technologies have made the combatants extremely lethal (Grossman, 1995). Before the Second Industrial Revolution, a warrior has a glorious appeal. He/ she could be a crusader, a protector, or a savior. This appealing warlike personality cult motivated the youth during the post Second Industrial Revolution wars as well. The World War I is a good example of this. But with the advent of new technologies, the appeal of valor culminated at dangerous impersonal missions (Dennis, 2001). According to Smith (1983), “The introduction of the gun will serve in the future to make war more rational and less the product of purely personal enmity.” In ancient warfare, we find personalities like Hector and Achilles who fought for personal glory. However, generals like Trotsky led the masses for almost completely impersonal movements. Rapid fire and faster and widespread communication actually impersonalized warfare (American Political Science Association, 1983). As for lethality once again, World War I provides a good example. Infamous chemical warfare during this period had made the ground reality similar to “Dying like so many rats in a trap” (Cook, 2002: 47). Such situation never came up in the wars of the ancient civilizations. Increased Cruelty The Effect: Second Industrial Revolution has begot such war techniques that cannot be limited among the combatants only. In modern warfare, the degree of civilian casualty is very high and this fact testifies for the increased cruelty of the combatants. Discussion: Atrocities committed by the ancient and medieval combatants were less terrific and had lower psychological effect. In technology-based modern warfare, things are different; especially, psychological effects are too profound. Siege warfare is an important sub-discipline in this regard. During the siege of the cities in the pre 1850 environment, less prominent terror techniques were generally used. Examples of medieval siege warfare like the Siege of Calais (France) by British forces show that human values prevailed to at least some extent in the war. Although siege of Peking by the
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The author states that apart from technological changes, the social system also changed. Consequently, there were also many people who were compelled to work at the new factories. There were obviously disadvantages associated with this: they made relatively less money for working long hours at a stretch.
According to the research findings it can therefore be said that immediately following the revolution, the living conditions of the British famers became terrible and the gap between the rich and the poor widened, yet the sacrifices of the poor people given then are now benefiting everybody in the world.
Background: Unlike any other revolution in the history of world, this particular revolution was not bloody in its outlook. It did not result in life loss neither did it cause any upheaval, rather it gave a new outlook to the world, made the events more progressive, changed the life styles, living patterns, working procedures and many other elements on individual and collective level.
The Industrial Revolution can be characterised under two phases: the First Industrial Revolution and the Second Industrial Revolution. Though there is not clear-cut demarcation between the two, in terms of the effect produced, many a times the two are differentiated on account of the technological advancement and inventions made and more importantly, a shift in the structure and functioning of organisations.
Still, technology contributed to almost all industries. Whichever view is taken, there was a significant improvement in the industrial output in England and across Europe during the Industrial Revolution. The rapid growth and evolution of technology fueled this growth and sustained a period of prolonged economic growth.
Urbanization changed the daily lives of individuals who had to adjust from self-sustaining life on farms to depersonalized lives in bigger cities with a newfound dependence on services that sometimes weren't provided. Because of this sudden and overwhelming growth and the discontent to which it gave rise, urbanization also had an impact on the entire economic and governmental systems of the developing nations.
e early twentieth century, the demand was for high-rise construction, and the technology of stone and masonry buildings had not kept pace with the developments of other structural systems1. Design of masonry was at that time purely empirical rather than rationally determined,
Transportation is also described as a major element of industrialization as demonstrated by the revolutionized transport industry during this period. This included transportation of goods and raw materials across long distances
It represents a period of transition to newer and better manufacturing processes in factories. The Industrial revolution was a major turning point in global history since it affected almost all aspects of human lives. The two most significant social
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