The collapse of USSR was one of the most happening events of the past century. A great superpower and one of the biggest countries of the world disintegrated into fifteen different countries in the year 1991…
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There were many reasons for the disintegration of USSR. Economic collapse: The cold war between the America and USSR had created a virtual battleground for the two countries in which both tried to get an advantage over the other. It initiated the race for arms and both countries tried to acquire and produce better weapons to keep the other country in line. For the USSR, the arms race created a lot of problems. A high amount of the budget was spent on the military while the industry and other sectors received only a very small share. Such a large yearly output being devoted only for the cause of military resulted in the decline of the country’s economy which finally went into stagnation. The two countries also engaged in a ‘space race’ releasing shuttles and satellites into the space to improve their technological standings. This also caused the USSR a lot of money and caused resentment among the general public as the amount was not being used to satisfy their basic needs. A major blow to the USSR economy was also made by the change in Saudi Arabia’s oil policies....
Also the regions within the USSR like Tajikistan that had ethnic links with the Afghans did not favor the war and hence an internal unrest was born inside the USSR (The Collapse of the Soviet Union). Gorbachev's reforms: The stagnation of the country and the obsolete political system of the country forced Gorbachev to introduce new reforms that could revitalize the economy and stabilize the existing political conditions. He introduced two famous reforms namely 'glasnost' and 'perestroika' which called for freedom of speech and political reconstruction respectively. The reforms however backfired and lead to the collapse of USSR. The transparency and the freedom of speech allowed the media to talk about corruption, alcoholism, political scandals and other issues that defamed the government. As the events like Chernobyl disaster and the Afghan war began to be showed in a negative light by the media the distrust of the general public on the Soviet government gradually increased. The stories of political killings and massacres in individual states like Armenia instilled the spirit of freedom and peaceful protests like The Baltic way began to be held in the entire country (Spielvogel). The democratization brought in as a result of perestroika provided more authority to the public and they openly spoke against the government. Gorbachev's reforms might have been for the good of the country but it produced radical unforeseen effects and the timing was certainly not right as his reforms ultimately resulted in the disintegration of USSR. US policies: While the above three factors played the most important role in the disintegration, the role of US cannot be denied. Ronald Regan, the president of US of that time made use of the deteriorating conditions of the USSR
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Many scholars believe that the failure was highly related the leaders inability to enforce their plans and also because of the continued rivalry that existed between Austria and Prussia which were against any of the states to be a leader of the unified Germany (Sherman and Salisbury 254).
Her views are derived from the history that the Chinese government has of suppression of the revolts that have happened in the past. She specifies the effects of the revolt that happened in Tiananmen Square in Beijing, which led to the infamous firing that resulted in the deaths of innumerable men, young and old.
The author concludes the article by pointing out that collapse of the Soviet Union at the beginning of 1990s is related to the intellectual and moral uprising from the side of the mass. Within this context, the policies implemented by Mikhail Gorbachev (Glasnost and Perestroika) accelerated the collapse of the Soviet Union.
It is worth noting that even despite lifting the censorship, the book market was highly affected by economic and political chaos leading into several book printing industry falling and eventually reducing the number of printed books. Nevertheless, detective stories and thrillers have turned out to be very successful in the 1990s and a decade later, Boris Akunin’s 19th century sleuth became very popular.
Taking all the features together, there is enough material on this website to study the Cold War in depth.
Weaknesses of the website include that the episode videos seem to be missing. Instead, there are just episode transcripts, and they are a
This, along with similar movements in several parts of the world has been viewed as a weapon of the weak. These movements of liberation are often born out of periods of oppression at the hands of nation states that betray the aspirations and opportunities to the common man and work towards providing the hope of resisting injustice and gaining respect and identity.
Two such economies are compared, namely China and Russia, the former being located in Asia and the latter (partially) in East Europe. The focus is on the characteristics of both transition processes, and this is followed by a discussion of
and private business enterprises were introduced to the new Russian economy, many American branded business companies flowed into Russia to set up shop. However, the sudden and sweeping changes in the political, social, and economic systems in Russia caused a terrible downward
It was “Cold” in that the two sides never directly engaged in armed conflict with each other, but was still certainly a war in that both sides engaged in a wide variety of war-like activities, including massing huge amounts of
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