Nobody downloaded yet

The influence of ideology on the formation of Soviet foreign policy - Essay Example

Comments (1) Cite this document
The notion of a political system led in its international behaviour by a particular set of operational and ideological rules rather than temporary concepts of state ‘concerns’ is usually hard for Westerners to comprehend…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER95.5% of users find it useful
The influence of ideology on the formation of Soviet foreign policy
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "The influence of ideology on the formation of Soviet foreign policy"

Download file to see previous pages The notion of a political system led in its international behaviour by a particular set of operational and ideological rules rather than temporary concepts of state ‘concerns’ is usually hard for Westerners to comprehend. Many scholars would agree that the complicated procedures, strategies, and goals making up the official Marxism-Leninism principle have had some influence on the formation of Soviet foreign policy, even though there are critical debates over the extent of the relevance of ideological influence. For instance, the policy aim underlying George F. Kennan’s well-known article in 1947 defining the justification for what developed into the ‘containment policy’ (Evans 1993, 44) was clearly to force the Soviet Union to discard ideological frame of thinking and to develop into a more cooperative and pragmatic one. Kennan tried to accomplish this by challenging Soviet rulers with geostrategic facts which rendered the policies and analysis originated from the ideology appears inexpedient and bleak (Quimet 2003, 81). A main idea underlying the containment strategy was that a ‘non-ideological’, specifically ‘normal’, Soviet Union would be much more unproblematic to contend with in the post-war period, when continuous cooperation between East and West would make the conditions of international security and reconstruction that much simpler to accomplish (Yanowitch 1991, 65). Kennan in the end came to challenge the relevance of the ideological influence (ibid, p. 65)...
ev regime, Hugh Seton-Watson, satisfactorily described the continuous Western discussions of the influences of Soviet foreign policy as an outcome of what he refers to as ‘either-or fallacies’ (Miller 1991, 2): The most widespread is the controversy between those who see ‘ideology’ as the main force behind Soviet policy, and those who give this place to ‘security’. It is our case that the two are inseparable, and there is no need to repeat the argument. Arising from this misleading ‘either-or-ism’ is the dispute, perhaps even more widespread, as to whether Soviet policy is ‘expansionist’ or ‘defensive’. It is both. Obsession with protection of frontiers and of strategic position leads to expansion, and each successful expansion creates new positions to defend (ibid, p. 2). The argument of this essay resembles Seton-Watson’s assumption. Ideology has consistently been a major influence in the formation of Soviet foreign policy, but definitely not the only one. Also, its influence has usually been indirect rather than direct. Specifically, rather directly imposing policies, it has functioned to form the goals and context of Soviet policymakers, as well as their views of such seemingly ‘normal’ priorities as ‘defence’, ‘security’ and the requirements for ‘peace’ (Miller 1991, 2); the influence of ideology being referred to, as in Seton-Watson’s statement cited above, represent quite evidently the ‘old political thinking’ (OLT) (ibid, p. 3) that is currently challenged by Gorbachev. The Ideological Influence The definition of ‘ideology’ is itself the centre of some disagreement, as well as the characteristic of its contribution in state decision-making. Ideology, as defined by one scholar, is a ‘preconceived set or ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“The influence of ideology on the formation of Soviet foreign policy Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(The Influence of Ideology on the Formation of Soviet Foreign Policy Essay)
“The Influence of Ideology on the Formation of Soviet Foreign Policy Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (1)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
gutkowskiabraha added comment 9 months ago
Student rated this paper as
Great work done on the "The influence of ideology on the formation of Soviet foreign policy". I think it is the best example I have seen so far.

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF The influence of ideology on the formation of Soviet foreign policy

How significant a role did Ideology play in the formation of Soviet foreign policy

...? How significant a role did Ideology play in the formation of Soviet foreign policy? (08.01.12) Introduction Soviet analysts have held that the central characteristic of Soviet foreign policy was established through Lenin’s Decree on Peace that was approved in November 1917 by the Second Congress of Soviets. It set forth the two fold objectives of Soviet foreign policy that encompassed both peaceful coexistence and proletarian globalism. On the one side, proletarian globalism is understood as the normal basis for the...
11 Pages(2750 words)Essay


...rulers were failed to consume nationalism as an ideology to blend state and society in a healthy way. Analyzing history researcher can comprehend the fact that the aggressive nationalism had influenced the Russian efforts to follow war as a tool of foreign policy. Reader can find the two instances in the history of Russia like Russian panslavism in 1856 to 78 and the great power of nationalism in 1905 to 14. Professionals in the field of political science have documented the fact that Marxist – Leninist and Maoist ideologies have played a vital role in the formation of the Soviet foreign...
11 Pages(2750 words)Essay

What did Gorbachev mean by the new political thinking in foreign policy Was it compatible with Marxism-Leninism

...for its own good. On the other hand, the nationalists believe that Russia’s national interests are not compatible with the West and therefore Russia must formulate a distinct foreign policy which is independent from the influence of the West. The shift in the Soviet foreign policy was not from communist to capitalist but from an opportunistic to pragmatic standpoint. However, it is argued that the “changes made in foreign policy did, however, entail a major shift in ideology, con­stituting a vital component of passive revolution and laying the foundations for further, more radical...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Foreign Policy

...Foreign Policy It is asserted in the American psyche that we all be prepared at all times for intimidation from abroad. This has always impelled Americans to put in place new measures for undeviating high-level cooperation between the civilian and military branches of the government. After the 9/11 attacks persuaded American of the astuteness of these arguments. The United States can in no way again afford to let down its guard. After these attacks, the United States needed new apparatus for the gathering and cooperation of foreign intelligent and, most importantly new mechanisms for seamless collaboration between representatives of the military and civilian agencies involved in...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Foreign Policy

...Foreign Policy: United s Presidential Debates In an election year, especially before the voting gets underway, American candidates for the presidency, as well as the incumbent – in this case, Barack Obama, engage in rallies and conventions across the nation. It is here that most Americans, if they are watching television, can get a view of the candidates at work and showing what their selling skills to the people of America are. Yet, a truly interested voter will take the time to investigate the issues and determine the truth of what each candidate says about these issues. From there, as regards the incumbent, a voter will decide if that president really did all he could do to achieve his promises to the...
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper

Maksim Litvinov And Soviet Foreign Policy During The 1930s

...the significance of this event (Dunn, 1988). In 1933, he spoke of a need to change the direction of Soviet foreign policy to counteract the influence of Nazi Germany under Hitler. He managed these changes through the establishment of diplomatic contact with the United States and other Western powers. He was also instrumental in the institutionalization of the League of Nations, the predecessor of the United Nations. His conviction in resisting and containing fascism was well-known. In addition, his name was etched in the global spheres when he became the proponent of collective security (Dunn, 1988). TRADE AGREEMENTS FOR SOVIET FOREIGN...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

Ideology of USA Foreign policy

...the book more reliable in understanding American ideology in foreign policies. Dumbrell’s argument is up to date, credible and of a scholarly prose; he investigates the American foreign polices from the cold war to the Vietnamese war, and later investigates the Anglo American relations particularly involving the Northern Irish issues, which President Bush in the early 90s influenced through offering lottery applications to Irish citizenry, and the MacBride fair employment proposals regarding US investments in Northern Ireland.4 Therefore, the book is up to date as Dumbrell traces trends of the ideology behind US foreign...
14 Pages(3500 words)Term Paper

Ideology and public policy

...with the principle of the social equality. Policy Changes and Political Influence As mentioned earlier that there are numerous public problems to be addressed while administering a state. In order to govern that smoothly various public policies have been coined. All the public policies are important to run the administration of the state; however one of the major public issues is education for which the policies are designed in order to address the issues. The discussion in this essay revolved around role of the government in developing the policies and the way it has been developed in the due course of time in response to the changes in...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay

Foreign policy

...Foreign policy What Are the Implications of the Rise of China for Australian Foreign Policy? The relationshipbetween China and Australia has been a long-standing one, but approaches to the Asian’s rising power have been radically different over the past four decades. China and Australia have been important trading partners throughout the twentieth century, and this pattern has continued into the 2000s. However, the past decade has reported stronger ties between these two nations owing to China’s explosive economic growth. This state of affairs has implications on Australia’s foreign policy alignments and its association with other...
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay

The Role of Image in the Formation of Foreign Policy

...Contemporary Issues and Foreign Policy Question Roles of Image and Perception in the Formation of Foreign Policy A foreign policy is essentially an outline of the model of engagement between any two given countries. It involves the manner in which they will be relating and cooperating with each other on various issues that mutually affect them. Whenever coming up with a foreign policy the issue of image and perception plays an enormous role since they influence the major decisions that are going to be made concerning the engagement of the countries in question (Hudson,...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic The influence of ideology on the formation of Soviet foreign policy for FREE!

Contact Us