Introduction The revolution in Iran in 1979 can be considered as one of the most important events of that era, resulting in the revival of Islam in Iran and striving to resist modernization in various Muslim countries…
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Hence, according to our opinion how could this man provoke a revolution? The Revolution In 1978, the youngsters and the working class of Iran protested and challenged the Shah’s army SAVAK, the most hated and powerful army used for repression in the entire world. When the masses were on roads, many soldiers of this army threw their uniforms and weapons away fearing the retaliation from the people. The reasons for their fear were due to the fact that they have been involved in brutal acts against innocent people of Iran. (Stempel 110) Under the rule of the Shah, industrialization of the country took place which resulted in massive unemployment, which ultimately played an important role in the revolution. The movement led by the oil workers was very important. At the crucial moments, these workers did not move since they knew the importance of oil industry for Iran, hence leading to the end of the Shah’s regime. This was the first time in the history of 14 years that thousands of Iranians dwelling in slum areas, protested against the Monarch. The movement was basically started by the labour working class and the less-privileged classes of the urban population opened the gate of the protests in July 1977. This also involved other sectors of the society like the traditional clergy and the intellectuals who were disturbed by the attitude of the foreign companies and the economic boom in the country. The largest recorded protest in the history took place with around 2 million people on September 7, 1978 in the city of Tehran. To these protests, the monarchist regime retaliated by killings of thousands of innocent protestors and imposing martial law in the country. This resulted in strikes by the working class. One of the massive strikes was of the 30,000 people from the working class of the oil industry, which affected the country’s economy to still. This was the opening up of another massive strike where the working class started taking over hospitals, factories, universities and offices of the country. A committee of the democratic workers was organized and named as Shoras, their purpose was to either sidestep or confront the owners and the managers. The committees were also formed around local mosques consisting of the slum dwellers, which played an important role in assisting the clergy taking control of the movement. They also guarded their neighbourhoods from Shah’s army. The significant forces were People’s Mujahidin guerrillas, people’s Fedayeen and communist Tudeh party, who played a key role in mobilizing the urban revolts. In February, 1979, with the help of a rebellion from the Shah’s army, made it possible to pave the way for Ayatollah Khomeini along with clergy and liberal capitalist politicians for gaining control and seize power. Ayatollah Khomeini, who had just returned from the exile, successfully captured the leadership of the movement which was initiated by the labour class. However, Mroue (159) observed that there was no coordinated attacks on the capitalism system by the strike comittees. Also, to ntoe that there was not much coordination observed with the institutions of the civil society. This was the gap which was filled by the religious bodies, which held a previlidged status in the Iranian society whereas other forces were shattered. Role of Islamic Clergy in the Revolution Fading of the ancient traditions of life and the growth of capitalism introduced several reactions both within
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The discussion also probes why the masses were prone to Khomeini’s fundamentalist appeal. This paper explores the typology, causes, and evolutionary pattern of Iranian revolution as demonstrated by consciousness of the masses and exploitation of mechanisms of communal solidarity.
Despite attempts to distance gender from biology, we need to accept biology as an important aspect of gender and sexuality. Is there a return to biological understandings of gender and is this a return or an advance? Contents Contents 2 Introduction 3 An Understanding of the Current Debates made on Gender, Sex, Sexuality and Culture 4 Theoretical Complexity in Relation to Sex and Gender 5 Investigating the Political Fervour Related to the Utility, Relevance and Scope of Categorisation based on Sex and Gender Criteria 7 An understanding of the above investigation in relation of a Complex and Contest driven Society 8 Conclusion 9 References 11 Introduction The concepts of gender and sexuality a
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Primarily he is the breadwinner of the family as he works to provide the needs of his spouse and children. It has been part of the tradition of various races that the male adults are the ones who should take care of the family. By definition, it is the male parent who is called as a father.
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The Iranian Revolution largely started with massive protests against the one-party system, rising unemployment, and corruption cases within the government that manifested in the ten years preceding the revolution (protests against one-party protests mainly started after 1975).
Therefore, when reading a book such as Persepolis, the concepts of these two major events are new to the American public. Marjane Satrapi account for the stories that took place in her country, she recalls these as early as the age of between six to fourteen regarding the experiences that she had, these years as told by her, saw the long regime of Shah coming to an end marking the triumph of the protracted revolution in the Islamic country.
Since trade in the region was poor, the whole economy was generally poor and this affected the living standards of its residents. Schools never existed in the religion and the hospitals were of poor conditions leading to lose of lives so easily. However during
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