Various ethnic groups struggling for equaility, autonomy or recognition within the jurisdiction of a particular territorial state which exist in the society is a very highly pronounced phenomenon these days. Some of the ethnic groups strive for independence from the states under whose jurisdiction they exist and this is marked as the extreme case of ethnic conflict as the ethnicities in particular areas refuse to remain under subjugation…
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The ethnic conflicts which appeared immediately after the cold war resulted in the disintegration of Sviet Union, Czechos...lovakia and Yugoslavia. There exist various different ethnic, racial, national, linguistic and cultural groups in most of the countries today. Majority of countries on the world map are composed of more than one ethnic group and thus there is diversity in almost all the countries of the world (McGarry and O’Leary, 1993). At times some of the ethnic groups of the society which are in minority do not get recognition and thus equal rights from the other ethnic groups and in such scenarios the minority ethnic groups are practically thrown out of the society which leads to ethnic conflicts. In a state ethnic conflicts are born in circumstances when there is an identity crisis and conflict between various ethnic groups leading to internal conflict in a state. Other types of conflicts are also related to ethnic conflicts, these include ideological conflicts, governance conflicts, racial conflicts and environmental conflicts. The most commonly observed reasons behind the emergence of differences between various groups living in the same country are religious, tribal, linguistic and ethnic differences. These differences very often incolve a mixture of identity and the search for security where prime contention concerns the devolution of power. Ethnicity is sometimes defined as the division of people living in an area into identity groups. Ethnic groups are historically given collectivities and psychological communities, these things can be observed very clearly in Iraq where the total population of the country is not only divide between groups on the basis of racial and ethnic differences, the country has also been divided over various sectarian conflicts i.e. between Shia Muslims and Sunni Muslims. The conflicts going on in Iraq and in some parts of Afghanistan can be classified as ethnic conflicts. Thesis Statement Eversince the beginning of war on terror and the ivasion of Iraq and Afghanistan by the international security forces, a series of conflicts have been observed in these areas which are primarily due to the imposed instability which was caused by the War on Terror. The media reports generated by unbiased agencies and the various researches which have been conducted in Iraq and Afghanistan, a basic difference have been observed to exist between the situation of sectarian conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. It has been observed that sectarian violence and extremism is more pronounced in Iraq than in Afghanistan. There are a number of factors which can be stated as the reason behind
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