This essay tries to answer the question, “can democracy emerge in any country or must there be some pre-requisites in place beforehand?” In answering this question, it is important to initially discuss the interaction between the Defender, Challenger, and Mass Public…
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The paper tells that democracy as an operational political framework does not simply emerge in any country; it is built. Thus, there are bounds to the advantages of being informed by assumptions from historical sociology and pragmatic political analysis, which use retrospection, in recognising prerequisites for democracy. Three aspects act together to decide which direction a society will take throughout the course of regime change: the choices of the Defender and Challenger, the Defender’s reaction to the choices of the Mass Public, and the method of the Defender during the discussions. A Defender and a Challenger argue in the discussions about the form of political system that will be established as the result of the transition stage of the course of democratisation. According to Gill, each desires to gain a result for the process of regime choice that directly resembles their best regime. Even though it serves an important function in the process as a provider of knowledge or necessary resources, the Mass Public does not participate in the discussions. The Defender is the current player, and hence the adherent of the existing state of affair. It is either the totalitarian government whose power was destabilised by the passing of a major event or the entity that deposed the previous government as a part of the major event. The Challenger aims to seize control from the Defender. It may aim to set up a competitive democratic structure, or it may aim to establish a new totalitarian structure under its power. The Mass Public has choices as well about the form of political system it would want the process of regime choice to generate (Diamond & Gunther 2001). Such choices reveal the degree to which a negotiation among opposing motives is probable and thus how simple or complex the compromises will be. The response of the Defender to the Mass Public ideas reveals its evaluation of its opportunities to attain its most favoured result for the process (Gill 2002). According to Gill (2002), the technique the Defender takes on during the compromises demonstrates whether or not it thinks it should negotiate with the Challenger. Thus, the process of regime choice may produce major results, namely, sustained totalitarianism and democratisation. There are particular directions through the process
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