Name: Instructor: Task: Date: Final Exam: Middle East Modern European anti-Semitism ensued in the last part of the 19th century. Anti-Semitism is defined as the profound hatred towards the Jews as a spiritual or ethnic group. Acknowledged as the greatest hatred ever happened, anti-Semitism goes back many years from the present…
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This was followed by Christian anti-Semitism, which occurred in the middle epoch and was principally religious in nature. This was further followed by conventional or olden Muslim anti-Semitism, which was apparently nuanced due to the case of Jews being protected socially. Socio-political and economical anti-Semitism associated with Europe in the period of enlighten and post enlightenment which crafted the basis for racial anti-Semitism. Racial anti-Semitism was inculcated in the era of Nazism around the 19th century (Falk 5). Modern anti-Semitism has emerged lately and is acknowledged as fresh anti-Semitism. However, in our study, we will deal with the anti-Semitism occurring in the 19th century. The introduction of the era of industrialization and the scientist revolution in Europe encouraged and was characterized by extreme anti-Semitism (Falk 25). Zionism is a Jewish political affiliation that aims at empowering and boosting the self esteem of the Jewish people in a sovereign national homeland of the Jews. It advocates for the Jewish people and addresses the critical intimidation and threats to their affluence and continued existence. Liberal Zionism, being our major focus, included advocacies by Zionist leaders such as Herzi and Weizmann, although not directed to a single party, for democracy and human rights adherence and free market capitalism. Kadima, however, diverted his advocacy towards the establishment of a democratic society in Israel, the dire need for Palestinian statehood and granting of equal rights for Israeli Arab citizens among other grievances (Falk 5). Theodor Herzl is the father to modern Zionism and emergence of the Israeli state. The imminent rise of anti-Semitism was what pickled Herzl’s attention and caused him to inculcate the fight against it. Despite the fact that he was steeped into the European culture, Herzl was perturbed by the augmenting hate for the Jews and, thus, started fighting for his dignity (Falk 55). With continued fight against Zionist movement by various Jewish leaders, Herzl pressed for more attention on the congress to conquer the communities or work with the Jewish communities in addition to political focus on the Palestine community. Thus, he elicited cohesion and serenity in the Jewish and Palestinian communities through activism as he wrote news articles discouraging anti-Semitism. Thus, he addressed the plight of the Jews and pressed for independence of Palestine and freedom foe Jewish people to his grave. Chaim Weizmann was brought up in a Jewish steeped setting and grew up aware of the plight of Jews. He played a big role in fighting for Zionism. In his liaison with Balfour for the enforcement of the Balfour’s declaration, Weizmann confessed that all he needed was home for his people. He secured a credit as one of the founding fathers of Israel. In 1919, Weizmann and his acquaintance Faisal, the future crown of Iraq, stroke an accord dubbed the Faisal-Weizmann agreement, which inculcated peaceful relations between Arabs and Jews within the Middle East. This accord lobbied for the settlement of Jews in Palestine (Falk 55). After this accord, Weizmann became the influential leader of the world Zionist movement where he liaised with Albert Einstein to raise funds for the construction of the Hebrew university in Jerusalem. He ended up as the first president of Israel where he brought people together. Before and after the Second World War,
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