According to John Rawls justice “is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of thought”. The theory of justice refutes to the fact that the loss of liberty for some is adjusted by superior good happening to others. It does not accept that the “sacrifices imposed on a few are outweighed by the larger sum of advantages enjoyed by many”…
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Justice that is balanced essentially relies on the properties and forms of freedom. Such properties are the associated “natures” of the theory of liberty, the driving forces, the spheres of influence, the limitations and the causes that make one either to give value to freedom or to find it objectionable. Dependence and independence reflect two different acts of any human being. However protective measures are required for existence of too much of independence such that a solution to “a condition for justice” may be obtained. The provision for human resources reflects two different principles; one that is “process-freedom” and explains the freedom of benefiting from one’s activities requiring “self ownership”, while the other principle presents the case of “shared equally” the benefits obtained. According to the modern theories of justice, utilitarianism as well as some other solutions, provided by Gauthier and Nash, necessitates the perception of a “cardinal utility” such that differences in the levels of utilities may be explained or compared.
Justice has been known to be a virtue that assists the feeble against attacks from the stronger society of people. Initiation of states, laws and religions were particularly for the purpose of establishing justice in a society. Justice intends to aid the weaker section of people by protecting them and helps to strengthen those who are strong. Justice can be described as an accomplishment that is “in accordance with the laws”. It aims to benefit both the weaker and the stronger sections of people in a society by means of “just laws” with which the strong may rule (Barr & Club, 1932, pp.19-20). Justice is considered as reverential when “it values a justiciable’s situation because the justiciable values it” (Kolm, 2002, p.31). The ethical evaluation of justice and its judgment depends on a set of variables that include social and ethical values for justice (Kolm, 2002, pp.31-32). Study on Utilitarianism: Utilitarianism has been conventionally understood as “most good should be done”. Although this view is in support of few philosophers like John Stuart Mill, there are several other opinions that charges to state that this principle is not attuned with what justice or fairness demands in distributing benefits to all sections of people in a society. Laws that necessitate impartiality in profits distribution “are best in the long run” and thus should be thought of without initiating maximization of benefits in certain circumstances for particular sections
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Utilitarianism is often summarized as “the greatest good for the greatest number” being used to calculate the moral correctness of an action, decision, or policy for both individuals and society on a common standard. Utilitarianism ideally judges actions based upon their outcome in producing the greatest happiness or pleasure for the greatest number of people, and therefore the ‘utility’ of an action can be calculated through its use in the production of the social good.
However, in order for these rules and regulations to be obeyed, there must be an autonomous government that ensures people follow the rule without using any favor in its administration (Bowie and Simon 56). Therefore, this essay is going to support the crucial role played by society in ensuring citizens enjoy their liberties, freedoms and happiness, as advocated by Mill in his two books On Liberty and Utilitarianism.
Mill proposed that the main aim of taking moral decisions is to achieve the greatest happiness for the greatest number. According to Mill, this objective is considered a legislative duty for all social institutions. Mill’s Utilitarian theory also posits that the conscience is not in any way the sole authority of the decision to do what is either right or wrong.
Mill and Bentham Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) are the two historical figures most closely associated with the philosophy of Utilitarianism, which seeks to ground moral reasoning in a calculation of utility by judging actions on the basis of the degree of goodness, happiness, and pleasure that they produce socially or personally through situational results.
Referring to it as the principle of utility, Mill believes that the highest normative principle is that actions are moral as they tend to promote happiness and immoral as they tend to produce sadness or dissatisfaction. Although Mill was a utilitarian, he argued that not all forms of pleasure are of equal value, using his famous saying "It is better to be Socrates dissatisfied, than a fool satisfied." In this regard, John Stuart Mill rejects the classical virtue theory.
In the modern global context it is very important to be aware of philosophical ideas of the leading philosophers. Many ideas of famous philosophers are the basic for many modern scholars’ theories. Different analyses are made through the prism of these ideas.
The constraint may be physiological, moral, social , religious and in all the cases it limits the human being.
John Stuart Mill discussed this problem, of liberty-constraint in his essay: "On liberty". But the interest for this concept has appeared since childhood.
According to Chapter 5 of the Proper Functions of Representative Bodies, John Stuart Mill elaborately explains the meaning of a representative government whereby the people have the absolute power to exercise through their elected deputies the ultimate controlling power. These deputies are elected by the people themselves.
Individuals who employ higher faculties often get less contented even though their pleasure is of higher character than of an animal. This paper is a discussion of the mills statement that “it is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig
It is this content that constitutes new media. New media is usually interactive in nature and users engage in dialogue; enabling them to comment on a host of issues from whatever part of the globe they occur (Cole & Dioso-Villa, 2007). As such new media is
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