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Cardiac Arrest and Its Neurological Effects and Use of Mild Hypothermia to Improve Neurological Outcomes - Case Study Example

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The study aims at identifying the most appropriate cooling apparatus and the duration of applying hypothermia as numerous approaches to inducing hypothermia have been tested successfully. The study can ideally be conducted in hospitals which are located in highly urbanized areas…
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Cardiac Arrest and Its Neurological Effects and Use of Mild Hypothermia to Improve Neurological Outcomes
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Download file to see previous pages Cardiac arrest can start with a fast ventricular tachycardia and degenerate into ventricular fibrillation.
Recovery from cardiac arrest is possible only if the heartbeat and circulation are restored by cardiac massage within a few minutes of its occurrence. It is often fatal when the patient is unattended or alone. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is indicated immediately before the patient reaches the hospital where defibrillation can be carried out.
Cardiac arrest occurs in adults mostly due to pre-existing cardiac disease, especially coronary artery disease. Other reasons which can trigger a cardiac arrest are a circulatory shock due to trauma, drug overdose or toxicity, pulmonary embolism, and other metabolic disturbances. (Merck Manual)
In younger people and children the causes can vary from trauma to toxicity, pulmonary infection and obstruction, and sudden infant death syndrome. The causes of cardiac arrest have been tabulated by Birt David et al (1999) as follows:
Hypoxia is inadequate oxygenation to the tissues in the body while Hypercapnia is the presence of abnormally high level of carbon dioxide in the circulating blood. Cardiomyopathies are miscellaneous pathological conditions of the heart muscle while Myocarditis is the inflammation of the cardiac muscles. Tension Pneumothorax is a condition in which there is abnormal pressure in the thoracic cavity due to the pathological condition of the collapsed lungs. Abnormal Vagal reflex mechanisms also alter the heartbeat and emboli precipitate cardiomyopathies. Circulating catecholamines like Epinephrine, Dopamine, and Norepinephrine have a profound effect on the functioning of the heart.  
Metabolic changes affecting the Calcium and Potassium levels disturb the normal homeostasis mechanisms of the body and these ions have important roles in the functioning of the heart muscle. Drugs used for treatment or ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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