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Background information of Pepto-Bismo ( liquid Medication) - Research Paper Example

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The main composition of this drug is bismuth subsalicylate. The undesirable effects of this drug include heartburn, nausea, stomach upsets, diarrhea, and general discomfort in the digestive tract…
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Background information of Pepto-Bismo ( liquid Medication)
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Background Information of Pepto-Bismol (Liquid Medication) Rationale Pepto-Bismol is a drug produced to treat minor upsets in the digestive system. The main composition of this drug is bismuth subsalicylate. The undesirable effects of this drug include heartburn, nausea, stomach upsets, diarrhea, and general discomfort in the digestive tract. This drug is stored at room temperature and under secure cabinets to keep off moisture and direct sunlight. People are now storing it in refrigerators to maintain it in its actual inactive form. Under room temperature, the medication may become active and start reacting with any moisture, but in the refrigerator, it is kept inactive. The drug normally has an unpleasant taste, but there are claims suggesting that keeping it under refrigeration reduces the undesirable taste. This research explores the possible effects of keeping Pepto-Bismol liquid medication under refrigeration in preference to room temperature, and at the end of this study a sound conclusion will have been obtained.
Background
This drug is present in the form of liquid formulation and chewable tablets or capsules, which are swallowed. The main ingredient in the drug, bismuth subsalicylate is a calcium carbonate and belongs to the class of antacids. The medication has the effect of being adsorbent on the stomach.
Mechanism of Action
Once swallowed it is thought to coat the stomach and intestinal walls to prevent the action of acids on these surfaces. It is also thought to kill certain bacteria. The doctor or pharmacist should recommend this medication prior to its use by an individual. The drug should be swallowed depending on the patient. An adult should swallow sixteen capsules in twenty-four hours; a child above ten years should swallow eight tablets in twenty-four hours while that one below ten years should use liquid medication. The medication should be taken thirty minutes apart. Many factors are taken into consideration before the dosage is given. These factors are the determinants on whether the drug will be helpful to the user.
The drug takes effect immediately after swallowing it and relieves the discomfort instantly. The main dosage that is given by pharmacists and doctors is two tablets after every thirty minutes and a maximum of 16 tablets in 24 hours. The swallowing should be 30 minutes apart. For children, the swallowing should also be 30 minutes apart with a maximum of eight tablets in 24 hours. For effective use of this medicine, the tablets should be dissolved in the mouth prior to swallowing. Before a doctor or pharmacist recommends this drug they check the body weight, other drugs used and allergies the person might have. These factors guide the way the drug will be used. The drug should be used to precision and incase of any delay the person should take the skipped dose as soon as possible and maintain the correct pattern.
In the small intestine, there is the conversion of Bismuth subsalicylate into sodium salicylate and bismuth carbonate. The oral bioavailability of Bismuth subsalicylate is very low and little is known on how bismuth is distributed in human tissue. The renal clearance of absorbed bismuth is via the primary elimination route although there is some biliary clearance. Insoluble bismuth salts are eliminated in the feaces. According to the maximum recommended daily dose of adults is given, the average biological half-life is about 33 hours with peak plasma levels of bismuth of less than 35ppb. After absorption in the intestine, salicylate is distributed rapidly to all body tissues. Administration of the maximum recommended daily dose indicates peak plasma levels of about 110 micrograms/ml. salicylate has a rapid excretion from the body with an average biological half-life of about 4-5.5 hours
Many people who are not supposed to use this drug may get many complications. Those who are not to use this drug are those allergic to bismuth subsalicylate or the other ingredients in the drug. Those who have a stomach ulcer or intestinal ulcers are not to use the drug (Dawkins, 1996). People with bleeding problems and have bloody stool are also told to keep off this drug. Children and people who have flu symptoms and chicken pox are not to use the drug. The drug has a few negative side effects especially in children. Those who have lost a sizable amount of bodily fluids due to diarrhea or vomiting will be most affected. The presence of bismuth in the drug causes constipation in children and results to traces of sulfur in their saliva. For pregnant mothers, they should not take this drug because it will be passed to their breast-feeding children and children may suffer from Reye’s syndrome due to the bismuth subsalicylate. If the breast-feeding mothers use, the antacids there is a likelihood of the baby developing food and drug related allergies (Dawkins 98).
Several researches have been documented on various aspects of Pepto-Bismol medication, but none of them has touched on the effect on the liquid drug when stored either at room temperature or under refrigeration.
Work cited
Dawkins, Richard. Bismuth Therapy in Gastrointestinal Diseases. London: Phoenix, 1996b.
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