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Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs - Essay Example

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The contribution of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs [.] (NSAIDs) to our understanding of developmental [.] advances in the pharmaceutical sciences …
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Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
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The contribution of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs [...] (NSAIDs) to our understanding of developmental [...] advances in the pharmaceutical sciences Introduction [...] Non - Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) [...] is the most widely used pain [...] reliever nowadays NSAID are drugs used [...] to reduce pain fever and inflammation [...] It is called non steroidal to [...] distinguish it from steroids which have [...] a similar eicosanoid-depressing anti-inflammatory action NSAIDS [...] are unusual in that they are [...] non-narcotic NSAIDs are sometimes also referred [...] to as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents/analgesics (NSAIAs) [...] In early days the most prominent [...] members of this group of drugs [...] are aspirin and ibuprofen This paper [...] will show the development of NSAID [...] from 1829 where it was started [...] up to the present From the [...] simple salicin to a more complicated [...] but effective COX 1 and COX [...] 2 History of NSAID In the [...] mid 1700s Reverend Edmund Stone wrote [...] a letter to the English Royal [...] Society noting the ability of the [...] bark of the willow tree to [...] cure fever He was reiterating an [...] observation known for centuries by many [...] cultures but the actual ingredient remained [...] unknown until 1829 when Leroux isolated [...] salicin Salicin indeed proved to decrease [...] fever (Green GA 2002) Sodium salicylate [...] a predecessor to aspirin was developed [...] along with salicylic acid in 1875 [...] as a pain reliever a very [...] successful treatment of fever and gout [...] Sodium salicylate was not often popular [...] though as it has a habit [...] of irritating the stomach However [...] in 1897 a man named Felix [...] Hoffman changed the face of medicine [...] forever Hoffman was a German [...] chemist working for Bayer He [...] had been using the common pain [...] reliever of the time sodium salicylate [...] to treat his father's arthritis The [...] sodium salicylate caused his father the [...] same stomach trouble it caused other (Link) [...] people so Felix decided to try [...] and concoct a less acidic formula [...] His work led to the [...] synthesization of acetylsalicylic acid or ASA [...] This soon became the pain [...] killer of choice for physicians around [...] the globe Scientists never really understood [...] the inner workings of the drug [...] however It wasn't until the [...] 1970's when British pharmacologist John Vane [...] Ph D began work on aspirin [...] that people began to understand how [...] aspirin really works Vane and [...] his colleagues found that aspirin inhibited [...] the release of a hormone like [...] substance called prostaglandin This chemical [...] regulates certain body functions such as [...] blood vessel elasticity and changing the [...] functions of blood platelets Thus [...] can aspirin affect blood clotting and [...] ease inflammation (Alhammabi et al 2005) [...] Development of NSAID Asipirin is the [...] famous NSAID which was discovered by [...] a German Chemist The brand name [...] Aspirin was originated from the Bayer [...] Company of Germany in 1897 In [...] some countries the name is used [...] as a generic term for the [...] drug rather than the manufacturer's trademark [...] In countries in which Aspirin remains [...] a trademark the initialism ASA (for [...] acetylsalicylic acid) is used as a [...] generic term The name aspirin is [...] composed of a- (from the acetyl [...] group) -spir- (from the plant genus [...] Spiraea) and -in (a common ending [...] for drugs at the time) It [...] has also been stated that the [...] name originated by another means As [...] referring to AcetylSalicylic and pir in [...] reference to one of the scientists [...] who was able to isolate it [...] in crystalline form Raffaele Piria Finally [...] in because it was a common [...] ending for drugs at the time [...] (Stone E 1973) Even though Bayer [...] was able to registered aspirin as [...] a trademark still the Germany Company [...] lost it during the World War [...] I Sterling Drug in 1918 was [...] able to get the right to [...] use Aspirin in the United States [...] when he was able to buy [...] the rights from the U S [...] Government Competitors start producing aspirin and [...] copying the formula done by Hoffman [...] In 1994 Bayer acquired Sterling but [...] still it did not restore the [...] U S trademark In as early [...] as 5th century BC Hippocrates a [...] Greek physician wrote about a bitter [...] powder extracted from willow bark that [...] could lessen aches and pains and [...] reduce fevers The Cherokee and other [...] Native Americans used an infusion of [...] the bark for fever and other [...] medicinal purposes for centuries (Hemel P [...] Chiltoskey M 1975) The medicinal part [...] of the plant is the inner [...] bark and was used as a [...] pain reliever for a variety of [...] ailments The Reverend Edward Stone a [...] vicar from Chipping Norton Oxfordshire England [...] noted in 1763 that the bark [...] of the willow was effective in [...] reducing a fever The active extract [...] of the bark called salicin after [...] the Latin name for the White [...] willow (Salix alba) was isolated to [...] its crystalline form in 1828 by [...] Henri Leroux a French pharmacist and [...] Raffaele Piria an Italian chemist Piria [...] was able to convert the substance [...] into a sugar and a second [...] component which on oxidation becomes salicylic [...] acid Salicylic acid was also isolated [...] from the herb meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria [...] formerly classified as Spiraea ulmaria) by [...] German researchers in 1839 While their [...] their extract extract [...]
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