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Smoking during Pregnancy - Essay Example

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In the paper “Smoking during Pregnancy” the author believes that to reduce maternal smoking it is necessary to understand the social and psychological factors maintaining smoking during pregnancy. While the physical dependence on tobacco can be very strong, there are powerful social dues for smoking…
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Smoking during Pregnancy
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Lack of will-power, physical and psychological addiction and being irritable. Most of the women-focused on one main factor which is being in the presence of other smokers. They cited stress, coping with children, coffee breaks, boredom, socializing, relationship problems, and relaxing as reasons that made them smoke.
Citation: Haslam, C. & Draper, E. (2001). Q qualitative study of smoking during pregnancy. Psychology, Health & Medicine. 6(1). DOI: 10.1080/13548500020021964.
Effectiveness of Turning with Unequal Time Intervals on the Incidence of Pressure Ulcer Lesions
Vanderwee, Grypdonck, and Bacquer, et.al. (2006) studied the effectiveness of turning patients on unequal time intervals on the incidence of pressure ulcer lesions. This is a two-arm random control trial conducted using a control group. It was selected because it is a quantitative control study on a nursing procedure.
Problem Statement: Pressure ulcers continue to develop in hospitals and yet there are no studies to indicate what the best method of prevention is.
Statement of Purpose: The aim of this paper is to determine whether repositions patients lying on a pressure mattress alternatively for 2 hours in a lateral position and 4 hours in a supine position reduces the incidence of pressure ulcers in comparison with repositioning every 4 hours.
Research Question(s): Does repositioning every 2hours in the lateral position and every 4 hours in the supine position produce fewer pressure ulcers than repositioning every 4 hours
Method: Patients who had non-branch able erythema were randomly assigned to two groups, an experimental group, and a control group. In the experimental group, patients were repositioned alternatively 2 hours in the lateral and 4 hours in the supine position. In the control group, patients were repositioned every 4 hours. Pressure areas were observed daily and classified according to the four grades of the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel.
Key Findings: More frequent repositioning on a pressure-reducing mattress does not necessarily lead to fewer pressure ulcer lesions and consequently cannot be considered as a more effective preventive measure. Read More
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