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Preoperative Nursing Intervention - Book Report/Review Example

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The following essay is a critical review of a research based on preoperative nursing intervention in abdominal surgeries and its role in alleviating anxiety and pain perception of the patient and thus minimizing his suffering. The review basically includes the literature review and theoretical work on which the research is based, the methodology that includes the methods of sampling, data collection, experiment procedure and instruments or methods, observation and inference…
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Preoperative Nursing Intervention
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Download file to see previous pages This article was chosen because it presented a typical example of research article with an experimental design, a single hypothesis with variables and direction, simple random method of sample collection and use of statistics for the analysis.
The framework used for the critical review of this article was adopted from LoBiondo-Wood. G. & J. Haber. 19QS. Cursing research: methods, critical appraisal and itti!i:arion. 4'1' ed. St Louis: Mosbv.
1. Pharmacokinetic variations: drug absorption, first pass metabolism and peak plasma concentration is different in different people. Therefore analgesic requirement varies which may sufficiently affect the postoperative pain.
1. Relief from anxiety - anxiety is a major problem pre operatively and hampers the smooth induction of anaesthesia. It is alleviated by preoperative psychotherapy by which the surgeon or the nurse creates a rapport with the patient and explains him about the events during surgery and postoperative recovery and reassurance regarding his fears. If the patient is very anxious benzodiazepines can be given either one night before or 2 hours before surgery.
2. ...
Patients come across two types of pain during abdominal surgery
1. A continuous dull aching pain which gives a good response to morphine.
2. An acute sharp pain due to coughing or sneezing, which is not alleviated with morphine.
Pain in abdominal surgery varies according with
1. Site of surgery: pain experienced during upper abdominal surgery is greater than that during lower abdominal surgery.
2. Type of abdominal surgery: minimally invasive techniques like laproscopy cause little pain than routine surgeries like exploratory laprotomy.
3. Age: as the age increases the pain threshold increases and experience of severity of pain reduces.
4. Personality: a person who is mentally strong or a person whose anxiety is alleviated with psychotherapy or drugs experiences less pain.
The amount of analgesics required varies from person to person depending on
1. Pharmacokinetic variations: drug absorption, first pass metabolism and peak plasma concentration is different in different people. Therefore analgesic requirement varies which may sufficiently affect the postoperative pain.
2. Pharmacodynamic variations: the sensitivity of opioid receptors is different in different persons, which also determines the analgesic requirement.
Pre operative medication
1. Relief from anxiety - anxiety is a major problem pre operatively and hampers the smooth induction of anaesthesia. It is alleviated by preoperative psychotherapy by which the surgeon or the nurse creates a rapport with the patient and explains him about the events during surgery and postoperative recovery and reassurance regarding his fears. If the patient is very anxious benzodiazepines can be given either one night before or 2 hours before surgery.
2. Analgesics - if patients are in pain ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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