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Hepatitis A as One of the Diseases: Transmission of HAV - Research Paper Example

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The paper presents permanent eradication of hepatitis A that requires global attention and involvement; primarily, all other countries in the entire world should enforce vaccinations and make it a law that all citizens need to follow just like in America…
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Hepatitis A as One of the Diseases: Transmission of HAV
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Download file to see previous pages Transmission of HAV is mainly through faecal-oral route especially when a person ingests faecal matter that could be available in food or drinks (Mushahwar 1). Coming into contact with the face of an infected person is one way through which hepatitis A can be acquired or transmitted from one person to the other. Moreover, if a person fails to wash their hands appropriately after using the bathroom, they can get infected (Gallagher 9); furthermore, hepatitis A can be transmitted to those individuals engaging in oral or anal sex especially with those that are infected as well as through blood transfusion, although this situation happens occasionally (Mushahwar 2). In addition, the transmission of HAV through the consumption of contaminated food and water can be associated with increased outbreaks of this disease globally. Normally, the incubation period of hepatitis A is between 14 and 28 days (WHO), but everyone’s body responds to it differently and exhibits different symptoms of the disease. Some individuals may not show any sign at all but they are infected with this virus; for instance, individuals with subclinical hepatitis have neither symptoms nor jaundice (Mushahwar 8). Moreover, signs and symptoms of Hepatitis B are more predominant in adults than in children since children have a more mild reaction to Hepatitis A as opposed to adults. Symptoms of hepatitis A are jaundice, dark urine, extreme fatigue, vomiting, nausea, coloured stool among others (Davis 3), but jaundice occurs in more than 70 % HAV infection cases (WHO). Hepatitis A virus has been known to be one of the oldest diseases affecting humankind, and it was discovered by Steven Feinstone in the early 1990s. The recommended diagnosis of hepatitis A is “testing the patients’ sera for the presence of certain anti-viral antibodies” (Mushahwar 1), whereby a positive test for anti-HAV is an indication that a person has been exposed to this virus before or is infected. Moreover, this virus can be diagnosed through determining HAV antibody in the faeces (Mushahwar 9). Arguably, people who are susceptible to HAV infection are those that not vaccinated against hepatitis A, travellers exploring places where the virus is endemic, men having sex with men, and people with chronic liver disease (WHO). Additionally, injecting drug users with unsterilized needles and medical personnel in hospitals are also at risk of HAV infection (Mushahwar 13). However, hepatitis A can be avoided by washing hands and engaging in safe sexual activities and by doing this, this endemic disease can be eradicated easily. In most cases, hepatitis is a treatable disease, but leads to death on rare occasion especially when diagnosed late or not treated (Gallagher 8). There are low infection rates the United States and other wealthy states since they are aware of proper hygiene (Gallagher 10); nevertheless, research shows that people aged five to forty are the most vulnerable to HAV infection. According to WHO, about 33, 288 people were infected in 1976, but when the vaccine was administered, this number reduced to seven, 653. This is a clear indication that the use of the vaccine in preventing HAV is effective and can help in reducing this infection. Moreover, proper hygiene should be the individual’s main concern since worldwide outbreaks and localized infections are very common in areas with poor sanitation. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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