HSBH5004 Bodily senses in health and disease Dr Tatjana Seizova-Cajic The Use of Virtual Reality in Treating Phantom Limb Pain By wsam ghandourh 430014060 Introduction This paper explores phantom limb pain and the use of treatment protocols that use of immersive virtual reality to treat the condition…
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The goal is to revisit the existing literature with the aim of determining the way forward for addressing the condition (Murray et al., 2006, pp. 167-170; Lamont, Chin and Kogan, 2011, pp. 369-372; Murray et al., 2010, pp. 175-196). Discussion: Using Virtual Reality in Phantom Limb Pain Treatment As the name suggests, phantom limb pain is perceived pain arising from the non-existing, , amputated limb. Such debilitation around the area of the missing limb is seen as being This is doubly crippling for the affected patient, because the amputation is coupled with a hesitation or the outright rejection of the use of prosthetic devices (Murray et al., 2006; pp. 167-170). The use of mirror box therapy has been cited to be an effective means to address phantom limb pain. In Ramachandran and Rogers-Ramachandran (1996) ten subjects had subjective improvements in the level of pain they experienced in the missing limbs following mirror box therapy. In Chan et al on the other hand, it was noted that visualization of the phantom limb together with the use of mirror box therapy resulted in the mitigation of pain for 33 percent of 18 patients, even as 67 percent of the patients reported an escalation of pain (Lamont, Chin and Kogan, 2011, pp. 369-372). ...
ubject to the manipulation of the subject in the area where the amputated limb is can result in the evocation of movement sensations that seem to emanate from the amputated limb, resulting in the alleviation of PLP. The mirror box technique does work in this context, and a study further posits that virtual reality methods can build on and improve results from mirror box therapy (Murray et al., 2010, pp. 175-196; Ramachandran and Rogers-Ramachandran, 1996; Maclachlan, McDonald and Waloch, 2004; Gold et al., 2005, pp. 203-210; Sato et al., 2010, pp. 622-629). Ramachandran and Rogers-Ramachandran (1996) note that there is a connection between visual cues from the virtual transposition of the remaining limb and into the space of the missing limb on the one hand and the triggering of new neuronal or brain pathways from the visual cues on the other. These visual cues and the resulting plastic reaction of the brain is characterized by felt sensations in the phantom limb. Clenched fists sensations in the missing limbs, for instance, are unclenched with the projection of the visually cued intact limb back into the missing limb. The unclenching of the intact had unclenched and clears the spasm in the absent limb. The study notes that for a substantial majority of the sample population of patients that were subject to the virtual box or mirror box, there was a rewiring of the brain to address the symptoms of phantom limb pain and to in essence reprogram it to adjust to the new reality of a virtual limb operating in the space where the amputation is. The implications of this finding of course is that interventions to treat PLP have to take into consideration the essential role of the human brain and its capacity to be plastic. This means that the brain, with visual cues, can
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What can phantom limb pain teaches about the human brain?
Phantom limbs are legs or arms, for instance, removed in the cause of an accident or by the operation by a surgeon but continue to linger in the minds of the patients indefinitely. In most cases, the patients or people with the phantom limbs experience excruciating and intense pain in the phantom arm, leg, and hand.
As the essay stresses modern lifestyle has been made possible due to the advancement in technology in various aspects of life. Among the many technological evolutions, virtual reality technology has made remarkable progress in advancement. Modern virtual reality systems and machines are simplified, light, and more advanced.
Like all specific phobias, arachnophobia is most commonly treated through therapy, particularly cognitive-behavioral techniques. Antidepressant or anti-anxiety medications may also be used. Some newer research has shown that virtual reality therapy, in which the
According to the paper, it has long been acknowledged that multiple sensory stimuli contribute to the conscious awareness of the body. Those who have limb amputation will have abnormal body awareness. Many studies have been undertaken to evaluate the effects of mirrorbox therapy as a model of neuro-rehabilitation.
According to the latest research these sensations are now regarded, as reality, having solid grounds to exist i.e., the mind. The sensations are developed by the support given to them by the mind.
"Another classic explanation for phantom limb placed the root of ghostly sensation at the severed sensory neurons themselves.
One of the latest innovations that allow people to escape from the commonness of life and gain unforgettable experience is virtual reality, computerized software that produces an artificial environment. This technology is