The use of Virtual Reality in treatting Phantom Limb Pain - Essay Example

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HSBH5004 Bodily senses in health and disease Dr Tatjana Seizova-Cajic The Use of Virtual Reality in Treating Phantom Limb Pain By wsam ghandourh 430014060 Introduction This paper explores phantom limb pain and the use of treatment protocols that use of immersive virtual reality to treat the condition…
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The use of Virtual Reality in treatting Phantom Limb Pain
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Download file to see previous pages The goal is to revisit the existing literature with the aim of determining the way forward for addressing the condition (Murray et al., 2006, pp. 167-170; Lamont, Chin and Kogan, 2011, pp. 369-372; Murray et al., 2010, pp. 175-196). Discussion: Using Virtual Reality in Phantom Limb Pain Treatment As the name suggests, phantom limb pain is perceived pain arising from the non-existing, , amputated limb. Such debilitation around the area of the missing limb is seen as being  This is doubly crippling for the affected patient, because the amputation is coupled with a hesitation or the outright rejection of the use of prosthetic devices (Murray et al., 2006; pp. 167-170). The use of mirror box therapy has been cited to be an effective means to address phantom limb pain. In Ramachandran and Rogers-Ramachandran (1996) ten subjects had subjective improvements in the level of pain they experienced in the missing limbs following mirror box therapy. In Chan et al on the other hand, it was noted that visualization of the phantom limb together with the use of mirror box therapy resulted in the mitigation of pain for 33 percent of 18 patients, even as 67 percent of the patients reported an escalation of pain (Lamont, Chin and Kogan, 2011, pp. 369-372). ...
ubject to the manipulation of the subject in the area where the amputated limb is can result in the evocation of movement sensations that seem to emanate from the amputated limb, resulting in the alleviation of PLP. The mirror box technique does work in this context, and a study further posits that virtual reality methods can build on and improve results from mirror box therapy (Murray et al., 2010, pp. 175-196; Ramachandran and Rogers-Ramachandran, 1996; Maclachlan, McDonald and Waloch, 2004; Gold et al., 2005, pp. 203-210; Sato et al., 2010, pp. 622-629). Ramachandran and Rogers-Ramachandran (1996) note that there is a connection between visual cues from the virtual transposition of the remaining limb and into the space of the missing limb on the one hand and the triggering of new neuronal or brain pathways from the visual cues on the other. These visual cues and the resulting plastic reaction of the brain is characterized by felt sensations in the phantom limb. Clenched fists sensations in the missing limbs, for instance, are unclenched with the projection of the visually cued intact limb back into the missing limb. The unclenching of the intact had unclenched and clears the spasm in the absent limb. The study notes that for a substantial majority of the sample population of patients that were subject to the virtual box or mirror box, there was a rewiring of the brain to address the symptoms of phantom limb pain and to in essence reprogram it to adjust to the new reality of a virtual limb operating in the space where the amputation is. The implications of this finding of course is that interventions to treat PLP have to take into consideration the essential role of the human brain and its capacity to be plastic. This means that the brain, with visual cues, can ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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