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Pharmacokinetics in drug development: successes and failures - Essay Example

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The administration of drugs into the bodies of organisms require effective diagnosis and evaluation to ensure the use of the appropriate drug in treating a disease in the bodies of the organisms…
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Pharmacokinetics in drug development: successes and failures
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Download file to see previous pages Being an external chemical substance, the organisms are likely to react differently depending on the mechanism that the drug uses to eliminate the pathogen. Pharmacodynamics analyze these effects by analyzing the processes of treating a disease and the resulting effects. Pharmacokinetics, on the other hand, is a branch of pharmacology that deals with study of the movements of the drugs within the bodies of the organisms. It encompasses the study of distribution and absorption of the administered drugs. The two concepts therefore relate since after the placement of an external substance onto the body of the substance, it has to travel to the specific location in the body within which it kills the pathogen thereby eliminating the discomfort. Pharmacodynamics entails the study of the reaction between the chemical compositions of a drug with the disease causing pathogen. The study therefore analyses the means through which the drug eliminates kills the pathogen and the subsequent method through which it eliminates the residue from the bodies of the organisms. Different drugs have varied reactions once introduced into the bodies of the organisms. This depends with the chemical composition of the drugs. In treating the diseases, most drugs seek to render the pathogens nonfunctional either by killing them or merely inhibiting their activity. This way, the drugs, eliminate the source of the external substance causing discomfort in their hosts thus treating the disease. Effective drugs derive their success through a number of mechanisms including disruption of the cellular membrane of the pathogens. This denatures the microorganisms thereby killing them. Additionally, some drugs react with the enzyme proteins in the microorganisms. This neutralizes the composition of such structures thereby successfully eliminating the foreign substance. Some chemical composition in the drugs also reacts with other parts of the microorganisms such as their carrier proteins and ion channels all of which denature essential structural composition of the microorganisms thereby killing them. However, not all drugs are effective in killing the pathogens thereby curing the medical conditions. Additionally some pathogens such as viruses have no definite deoxyribonucleic acid and therefore evade the drug chemical composition making their elimination more difficult. Some of the most common undesired characteristics of drugs include increasing the probability of cell mutation. Mutation refers to the change in the structure of a cell thereby making it resistant to the chemical composition of a drug. Certain drugs increase the probability of drugs mutating thereby resisting the drug and increasing their effects on their host organism. Additionally, some chemicals in the drugs result in physiological damage of the body tissues thereby injuring the organisms. This results from inappropriate composition of the drug during development. The drug development process requires effective testing to ensure the development of effective drugs that do not harm the organisms in whom they are administered. Pharmacokinetics therefore concern itself with the movement of substances of the external components in the bodies of the organisms. The chemicals in drugs gain access into the bodies of the organisms differently either orally or through injection among ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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