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Gram Positive and Gram Negative Drug Resistant Organisms - Essay Example

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There has been numerous researches carried out to come up with antibiotics for the bacteria resistance but due to the facts being seen, there is not much that can be done. This is a statement, which can be justified by numerous researches carried out without success. …
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Gram Positive and Gram Negative Drug Resistant Organisms
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Gram Positive and Gram Negative Drug Resistant Organisms There has been numerous researches carried out to come up with antibiotics for the bacteria resistance but due to the facts being seen, there is not much that can be done. This is a statement, which can be justified by numerous researches carried out without success. In this case, it has been reported that development of antimicrobial resistance seen in pathogens of the gram-negative and gram-positive has been relentless but without any success but with a few progressions (Mayers, 2008 Pg 15). Some of these pathogens include the extended spectrum ?-lactamase, which is responsible for the production of and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (Mayers, 2008 Pg 15). Some of the practices and agents, which have always been used in the treatment of these pathogens, are now rendered out dated. Moreover, some of the new drugs that are being produced to fight these pathogens have been found to be targets for the resistance of the bacterial mechanisms (Levinson, 2008 Pg 34). Therefore, it is justified to say that the bacteria resistance exists, and they can be used to elaborate the reason for the existence of different infections and how they are being treated. Antimicrobial resistance are nowadays advancing to different stages ever since the creation of penicillin and this has contributed to different approaches in the in the field of infectious diseases. The various approaches being utilized in the development of drug in the antimicrobial issues has always been challenged by the evolving of these mechanisms which make these agents that exist to be obsolete. This has prompted the search for new and different mechanisms of resistance that are more resilient and effective (Mayers, 2008 Pg 16). However, these developments have been seen not to bare much fruits as expected since there has been little development despite numerous approaches in researches carried out. Majority of these infections are acquired in hospitals, and this has contributed to numerous challenges in the patient safety. The numbers of deaths caused by these hospital-acquired infections have increased in number, which has made it the number six killer diseases in the world. It is on record that only one third of these infections can be prevented or treated. The most particular concern is given to the infections caused by gram-negative bacteria (Levinson, 2008 Pg 42). These organisms are among the efficient genes responsible for up-regulating and acquiring mechanisms of the antibiotic drug resistance especially in places where there are numerous pressures of antibiotic selections. Doctors and medical practitioners have availed plethora of resistance mechanisms through the use of multiple mechanisms that are used for the same antibiotic. This can be explained as the same mechanism being used in different antibiotics. Compounding the problems related to the antimicrobial resistance is seen to be the immediate threat responsible for discovery of the development of new antibiotics. Moreover, there are several factors, which are responsible for this decline. One of them is the challenges which are attributed to the screening of these new compounds. After the compound is found, it usually takes long for the development of the drug of which several new compounds would have developed (Levinson, 2008 Pg 45). This will contribute to complexities in reduction of drug longevity as the resistance emerges all the time. As for this reason, numerous developments have immerged with regard tom these infections. This has been based on increasing of the drug resistance in cases where there are no new drugs, which are developed. The hospital acquired infections are usually associated with the medical devices which are invasive ore surgical processes. The most lethal conditions are the bloodstream and the respiratory tract infections. However, the most common is the urinary tract. The researches carried out indicate that 30% of the all the hospital acquired are related to the gram-negative bacteria. These bacteria has been seen to predominate in the availability of ventilator associated pneumonia which contribute to 47% and urinary tract infection which contribute to 45% of the infections (Mayers, 2008 Pg 36). Majority of ICUs across the world have problems with combating the gram-negative bacteria, which accounts for 70% of these infections. Concisely, these infections can sometimes be treated or be controlled not to cause deaths. It is essential to understand the antimicrobial susceptibility which are the direct empirical antibiotic therapy. There are various therapies, which can be applied to control the hospital-acquired infections. One of the oldest therapies that has always been used is the polymyxins (colistin and polymyxin B) (Mayers, 2008 Pg 36). It was discovered in 1940s and have specific lipopolysaccharides, which is an outer cover or membrane of gram-negative bacteria (Mayers, 2008 Pg 37). The organisms which have always been seen to be resistant to polymyxins are proteus, serratia, maltophilia, Stenotrophomonas, cepacia, Burkholderia and flavobacterium (Mayers, 2008 Pg 37).Bibliography MAYERS, D. (2008). Antimicrobial drug resistance handbook. Volume 2, Clinical and epidemiological aspects. Totowa, N.J., Humana. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-60327-595-8. LEVINSON, W. (2008). Review of medical microbiology and immunology. New York, McGraw-Hill Medical. LEVINSON, W., & JAWETZ, E. (2000). Medical microbiology & immunology: examination & board review. New York, Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill, Medical Pub. Division. Read More
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