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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome - Research Paper Example

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All women produce both androgens ( male hormones) as well as oestrogens ( female hormones), but in these women the balance tends towards androgen production, rather than oestrogen production. The name of the condition comes from the outward appearance of the ovaries…
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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
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Download file to see previous pages In most, although not every, case the ovaries of the women that are affected with the disorder are enlarged and contain numerous small cysts. These cysts are found on the outside surface of the ovary, so giving the characteristic polycystic appearance.
Most women with polycystic ovary syndrome suffer from absent, infrequent or irregular menstrual periods; hirsutism; acne and obesity. Infrequent or absent menstruation, together with weight gain and excessive amounts of bodily hair, may signal the condition in adolescents. The first sign of polycystic ovarian syndrome for many women past the puberty stage is usually when there is unexplainable weight gain, or when they have difficulty in getting pregnant, as eggs are not released from the ovaries as they should be. There may also be a loss of scalp hair in male pattern baldness( Mayo Clinic, 2013).
Complications arising from polycystic ovary syndrome include hypertension, diabetes and heart disease. There are no definitely known causes for polycystic ovary syndrome, although there are a number of theories. Whatever the cause, early diagnosis may help prevent the complications from happening, as the syndrome will be managed earlier with hormonal and other therapies. II. Background and Etiology Hormones are chemicals in the body that regulate such things as growth and energy. Polycystic ovary syndrome occurs when the female’s hormones are unbalanced. This is the major reason why they have a difficulty getting pregnant, as they have excessive amounts of the male hormone testosterone, or the testosterone that they do have is extra active ( NHS Choices , 2013) Normally, the ovaries produce a small amount of testosterone. It is this hormone which is responsible for extra hair, acne and oiliness skin. Excess of this hormone may lead to the stoppage of ovulation. Acne and excess facial hair would also start to appear. Sometimes women with polycystic ovary syndrome are also insulin resistant. This would lead to diabetes in the long run. About 11% of those with polycystic ovary syndrome will eventually develop diabetes ( Nardo, 2013). Other symptoms which have been mentioned include skin tags, brown skin patches (Acanthosis Nigricans ), higher than average cholesterol levels, general exhaustion or lack of mental alertness, and a decreased libido or sex drive ( Insulite Laboratories, 2013), In some cases women have the associated symptoms, but upon examination their ovaries have a normal appearance, and in other cases they may have none of the symptoms, but their ovaries appear to be polycystic. III Causes The Mayo Clinic ( 2013) states that the exact cause of this condition is unknown. Suggested causes of polycystic ovary syndrome can include heredity; inflammation; excessive insulin in the system; and abnormal fetal development. If there is a family history of polycystic ovaries then a person’s chances of having the same condition are increased. Having excessive amounts of insulin, or insulin resistance, results in the body’s ability to use insulin being impaired. The body then tends to produce even more insulin, and as a result releases more progesterone into the system, so making matters even worse. In some cases eating certain foods leads to inflammation. This may be considered as low grade allergies. If this occurs, insulin resistance happens, and once again extra progesterone will be released in the system. People who are exposed to androgens ( male ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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