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The Presence of Toxins in the Body and the Symptoms of an Infectious Disease - Essay Example

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The purpose of this essay is to critically discuss, analyse and determine the extent to which toxin play the role in causing infectious diseases in the human body. By the end of this essay, I hope to conclude successfully whether toxins are indeed, the only reason for people getting infectious diseases…
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The Presence of Toxins in the Body and the Symptoms of an Infectious Disease
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Download file to see previous pages People get infectious diseases when microorganisms that enter our body overpower our host defences, that is when the balance between the organism and host shifts in favour of the organism (Levinson 2008, p30). Now the host defence mechanism is our body’s innate immunity – our body’s defence system against foreign objects entering our body. There can be two possible ways in which our body becomes susceptible to diseases; when the number of microorganisms is too great for our body to bear and counter, which, therefore, overwhelms our host defences, or when they are highly virulent. The virulence of an organism can be further understood by the following explanation. “Virulence is a quantitative measure of pathogenicity and is measured by the number of organisms required to cause disease. The 50% lethal dose is the number of organisms needed to kill half the hosts, and the 50% infectious dose is the number needed to cause infection in half the hosts. For example, Shigella and Salmonella both cause diarrhoea by infecting the gastrointestinal tract, but the infectious dose of Shigella is less than 100 organisms, whereas the infectious dose of Salmonella is on the order of 100,000 organisms” (Levinson, 2008). To further elaborate on Levinson’s explanation, by quantifying microorganisms and host defences through the measure of virulence factors, we are able to determine which microorganisms make us more vulnerable to contracting infectious diseases. By quantifying our body’s reaction to them, and their effect on our body, we are better able to understand and thus, counteract the harmful effects of them. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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