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Prostate cancer - Research Paper Example

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Name Surname Professor Name Subject Date Prostate Cancer Introduction: The cancer that occurs in the prostate gland is referred as the prostate cancer. The prostate is a part of the reproductive system in men that is represented through small structure shaped like a walnut…
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Download file to see previous pages Men of ages more than 60 and whose father or brothers already have the cancers are at more risk of developing prostate cancer. Certain other causes of prostate cancer include men being around agent orange, men using too much alcohol, men who are farmers by profession, men who eat a high fat diet and animal fat, men who are associated with tire plane works, men being painters, and for those who remain around too much of cadmium (Prostate Cancer). Clinical Manifestations: In persons affected with prostate cancer, there is a local growth of the tumour in the gland which gradually spreads to different lymph nodes in the region through lymphatics. There is also a hematogenous propagation to isolated metastatic sites. Some patients in whom the cancer is detected at an early stage, the tumour is asymptomatic. However when the cancer is locally advanced, the symptoms reflect certain obstructions and irritations as the local tumour extends to the urethra and the neck of the bladder. Prostate cancer also creates pain in the bone when the tumour spreads there. Impingement in the spinal cord is also another symptom of prostate cancer (Dreicer and Garcia). Diagnosis: Prostate specific antigen has now been introduced in the clinical practice. With this in place, prostate cancer screening is used as a method of diagnosis of prostate cancer. However this method of diagnosis is still controversial in clinical practices since the decrease of prostate cancer specific mortality has not been obtained. The American Society of Internal Medicine is however working on developments of diagnostic methods. Several prospective methods of screening are also been tried across the world. “Over the last decade, the penetration of PSA-based screening has caused a stage migration, with an increasing percentage of patients with normal rectal examination findings receiving a diagnosis on the basis of an elevated PSA level (clinical stage T1c in the tumor, node, metastasis [TNM] staging classification)” (Dreicer and Garcia). Treatment: Some of the treatments of prostate cancer are standard while some of them are new in clinical trials. The standard treatment methods include active surveillance of the patient to watch his condition and any changes in symptoms. Surgeries like pelvic lymphadenectomy, radical prostatectomy, transurethral resection of the prostate are done on patients who are fit for the operations. Radiation therapy, hormone therapy, chemotherapy and biologic therapy are some of the other standard treatment methods used for prostate cancer. Other than these standard methods, there are certain new clinical trials that are in being tried in the present day. These include cryosurgery that freezes and destroys the prostate cancer cells through use of an instrument. Cancer cells are also being destroyed through high intensity focused ultrasound. Proton beam radiation therapy is also used for prostate cancer treatment. Moreover, with the greater developments, patients are allowed to take part in the different clinical trials, even before and after the treatment if needed. There are certain follow up tests also available that are parts of the treatment measures (Prostate Cancer Treatment). Prognosis: When the cancer is at an early stage, the rates of survival are generally good. In later stages, the cure becomes difficult but there may be chances of survival for ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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