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Outbreak Investigation - Essay Example

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Outbreak Investigation Report Name: Institution: Date: Outbreak Investigation Report Botulism in Argentina Foodborne botulism is a serious disease that is caused by eating food intoxicated by a bacterium called Clostridium botulinum. In absence of treatment, supportive care and timely of administration of antitoxin that minimizes mortality rates in the United States to not more than 10%, the disease can lead to death up to 60% …
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Download file to see previous pages Physician in Buenos Aires hospital in January 13, 1998 called the Directorate of Epidemiology of the Argentine Ministry of Health (MOH) concerning the outbreak of the infectious disease. The telephone to the directorate was meant to report on two probable causes of botulism disease. The symptoms exhibited by patients who were males are drooping eyelids, respiratory complications, swallowing problem and double vision (Arias 2010, p.120). One of the patients showed the start of the signs on January 5 and the other on January 6 in the same year. The physician in the hospital had collected sera and stool specimens, which were obtained from men that were meant to test botulinum toxin but did not show any results. The two probable cases of outbreak of the disease caused a lot of concern in Buenos Aires hospital since botulism disease can be serious as it can affect other people. Single case of botulism disease can warrant public health emergency that can portent a larger outbreak. The outbreak of the disease was apparent since the victims of the disease were both drivers. The two proceeded and continued to drive their buses despite having double vision and blurred vision. It was expected that vision problem in the two drivers could have resulted to unsafe driving, hence causing accidents. Because of the severe implications of untreated botulism is extremely severe, the Argentine Ministry of Health has directed its efforts in conjunction with the local health facilities and other health care providers in their efforts to establish the source of botulism. The epidemiologists wanted the undertaken treatment to go in a slow pace thus enabling them to carry out extensive examination on the affected bus drivers. The epidemiologist wanted concrete information to enable them to understand the source of botulism. The available information according to epidemiologists could be adequate to make a definite conclusion. This is because they had not established the severity of the disease and they were not clear on the population that was a risk of the disease (Busto 1999, p.1332). The clinical condition of botulism is characterized by neurologic symptoms, which h includes dry mouth double vision and drooping eyelids are the earliest symptoms of this condition. The early symptoms and signs of the disease are followed by speech complications, difficulties in swallowing and weakness in the peripheral muscles. Lack of supportive care to contain the disease, there will be complications in the respiratory system that will eventually lead to death. It has been known that the incubation period for botulism disease is 18-36 hours; however the signs and symptoms of the disease can emerge after six hours. There is also the possibility that the signs can occur after 10 days in late situations. The botulism is a rare case in the medical field thus many physicians have little knowledge about the disease. Therefore victims who are suffering this condition can be diagnosed for the wrong disease such as stroke. This will in turn delay the administration of treatment for some days thus increasing the chances of death. (Greb 2006, p.86). Upon receiving the two cases of botulism in Buenos Aires hospital, the Directors of National Laboratory and Environmental Health and Sanitation Program were ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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