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Foot and Mouth Disease - Research Paper Example

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Topic:  Foot and Mouth Disease Introduction Foot and mouth disease is a disease which is caused to cloven hoofed animals including domesticated ruminants and pigs and more than 70 wildlife species. Foot and mouth disease is endemic in large areas of Africa, Asia and South America, and the infection has a remarkable ability to spread over long distances and to cause epidemics in previously free areas…
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Foot and Mouth Disease

Download file to see previous pages... According to (IDG,2011)“The virus spread from one place to another by air especially when humidity of the air is high the virus easily spread from one place to another”. There have been many references in the scientific literature in the past of the occurrence of FMD in humans. In the vast majority of these cases the appearance of blisters and vesicular lesion has been due to the effect of other agents – including viruses. Under field conditions susceptible animals may be infected by FMDV as a result of direct or indirect contact with infected animals or an infected environment. Several recent outbreaks of FMD has been linked to the entry of virus in contaminated materials which has subsequently been fed to animals.FMD contact are influenced by influenced by many factors like stocking density, handling of animals and their rearing. Description of Foot and Mouth Disease FMD is an acute febrile disease characterized by the formation of vesicles in and around the mouth and on the feet. Lameness and inappetance are also often characterized features. As per(Hoenig,2005)“The disease is characterized by fever and blister like lesions followed by erosions on the tongue and lips, in the mouth, on the teats, and between the hooves”. Lesions may be initially being observed as blanched areas, which subsequently develop into vesicles at sites of local irritation and abrasions. Consequently, lesions are most often observed in and around the mouth and on the feet but may also be seen on the snout or muzzle, teats, mammary glands, prepuce , vulva and other sites of skin and mucosea. Animals kept outside on soft grounds or inside on soft bedding are less likely to develop severe foot lesions and show obvious lameness. Mortality in young animals, particular lambs and piglets, may be due to acute myocarditis. Occasionally, the skeletal muscles may also be affected. The significance of acute myocarditis in spread of the FMD has not been studied in detail. Death usually occurs rapidly and before the development of vesicular lesions; however FMDV replication levels are significant in heart, and it appears plausible that a significant viraemia occurs and that virus particles are excreted in breathe, saliva, nasal fluid and other excretions and secretions.FMD may also cause abortion in pregnant animals; however, the precipitating and specific mechanism involved had not been determined for the various livestock species. Epidemic and prevalence of the disease The endemic nature of foot and mouth disease in South America remained a constant problem facing its meat exporters. In 1870 to 1929 the United States experienced ten different outbreaks of foot and mouth disease from imports from Europe and South America. Two of these in 1914 and 1924 were particularly serious, costing tens of millions of dollars to eradicate. In the book(Perren,2006,pg.130)states that ,“A 1994 study conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture found that of 558 worldwide outbreaks of the disease between 1870 and 1993, only 2 percent of those occurring before 1969 has been caused by imported livestock”. But since 1969 imported animals had become the major cause of the disease, accounting for 36percent of outbreaks. There was an outbreak of 30 cases of FMD in ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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