Case Study Deep Vein Thrombosis
It is estimated that at least 1 in 1,000 patients in the UK each year have DVT and about 25,000 people die of blood clots that develop when an individual is in the hospital (Patient UK, 2010). …
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The behavioural changes associated with DVT are those that instruct the patient to stop any activity that will restricts the “free flow of blood within the lower extremities” (Skinner and Moran, 2008). This condition was chosen because it was interesting that there are so many different ways that DVT can develop.
2 Definition of DVT
DVT is defined as a blood clot that appears in the thigh or lower leg. (National Health Lung and Blood Institute, 2009). The blood clot goes deep into the body and it is a result of blood thickening and then clumping together. When a blood clot goes deep into a vein, it can break off and move through the individual’s blood stream. Many people have heard about embolisms and this is what the lose clot is called. The blood clot can block blood flow to the lungs and heart at any time When it blocks off blood flow to the lungs, it is called a pulmonary embolism (PE) (National Health Lung and Blood Institute, 2009). PE can become so severe that it can cause damage to other organs and eventually will cause death.
Causes of DVT
There are many situations in which DVT can begin. In some situations, a blood clot can happen after surgery. When an individual leads a very sedentary lifestyle without a lot of movement, the blood flow can become sluggish, which can allow the blood to clot in the veins. Some causes happen because of an inherited condition, hormone therapy, or taking birth control pills (National Health Lung and Blood Institute, 2009).
Also, when people get older, they have a tendency to be more sedentary and DVT has been shown to happen in people over 60. 2.3 Signs and Symptoms of DVT The signs and symptoms of DVT are very subtle and most people will not know that they are ill. The other challenge is that only about 50% of people have symptoms before something larger begins to happen. Some of the signs and symptoms are: 1. Legs swelling or swelling along a vein in the leg. 2. Pain or tenderness in the leg, especially when standing or walking. 3. The leg feels warmer in one area than in the rest of the leg. 4. A read or discoloured area in the skin appears. 5. PE—which can begin with “coughing up blood, an unexplained shortness of breath, pain when deep breathing or rapid breathing with a fast heart rate” (National Health and Lung Institute, 2009). One important issue for people who suspect they have DVT is that they should go to their doctor immediately to check before it is too late. 3 The Literature on DVT There are many articles that have been written on different aspects of DVT and several research studies that have been done. Some of these studies are current and others are later than the last five years. This is a topic that has held interest among the researchers because doctors and researchers are not totally sure how they can stop it. Meissner et al. (2007) examined the various ways that the venous system works and the haemodynamics of haemo-circulation. This was a very helpful article because it explained how the venous system should work. The authors state that the primary function of the venous system is to send blood back to the heart. The venous system has a reservoir that promotes cardiovascular homeostasis as the volume of blood shifts through the venous system.
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Nursing care is a crucial element of health care. Nurses are very much involved in the patient’s care and well-being because they stay with the patient most of the time. This is a case study of a 74-year old male patient who had L4-L5 decompression on the 7th of April 2011.
Although blood keeps developing microscopic clots in all veins in the body, yet the clots are continuously disintegrated by the body itself. Thus there normally exists a balance between clot formulation and decomposition. However, there is great verisimilitude of occurrence of clotting if this balance between clot formulation and disintegration shatters.
146 studies Qualitative Clinical risk assessment, meta-analysis review Prophylaxis with low-dose anticoagulation before surgery or prolonged bed rest; prevention of thrombus progression and embolisation through low-molecular weight heparin followed by Vitamin K antagonists (for 6 months); for cancer patients – low molecular weight heparin Prevention of thrombus is a more effective choice in the management of DVT Both authors are experts in the field of medicine, particularly in the management of thrombus and hemostasis (Williams 2010).
In case of DVT in pregnancy, the problem is further complicated by its diagnosis and management, in that due to the risks of fetal exposure the imaging studies have limited roles. This may lead to delayed diagnosis, and the management of an established DVT is widely debated due
in 1,000 patients in the UK each year develop a DVT and about 25,000 people die of blood clots that develop when an individual is in the hospital (Ford and Kenny, 2010). The behavioural changes associated with DVT are those that instruct the patient to stop any activity that