Benefit societies that cared for labour were formed. So in one way or another concrete platform for government healthcare was already laid in Europe while in America policy makers still faced hurdles. …
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Originally the idea of proving healthcare to workers was a manipulative one as it was in exchange for the seeming power that could be had over them. US did have some funds for health purposes but there was no regulated law or policy in place. During President Roosevelt’s time some initiation did take place because of his belief in making the country strong, however the leaders that followed Roosevelt delayed any sort of law to be formed.
In 1906, American association of Labour legislation finally started a campaign for health insurance. A model bill was drafted years later in 1915 and was only limited to the working class health costs. The private insurance industry opposed this proposal as for them it would prove to be harmful to their own business.
When WW1 started, people denounced this compulsory health care policy as a German socialist agenda. They associated it with communism and declared that it was not in accordance with American values. This put an end to the debate till 1930s. But after that medical costs for workers increased. As more and more middle class people started using hospitals, the costs of the business increased and opportunists realized how much money can be made out of this. Concerns over medical costs and health insurance led to the formation of Cost of Medical Care (CCMC). It was a privately funded group made by philanthropic organizations. Their contribution was a research report that showed how important the need for medical care is. The debate between compulsory or voluntary health insurance still existed. However this document was used as basis to bring about change. Just as the AALL campaign ran into WW1 the same happened with the new movement as WWII began. The bill that changed health care was The Wagner-Murray-Dingell bill. This bill called for compulsory health insurance. The political opposition for this bill was immense which is why the bill never became a law. President Truman was a big supporter of the health care issues, and during his tenure he greatly focussed on this. But this was during the cold war period and the opposition used it to full advantage citing that this too was a communist agenda that cannot be acceptable in America. Thought Truman’s plan came with several reforms the opposition never took to it and again the health care reform faced major hurdles. In 1945 AMA again put a lot of resources into lobbying for the bill but they faced defeat again. But now they changed their mindsets and started working on something more basic, hospital insurance for the seniors and Medicare. Finally in 1958 a new proposal was introduced by Congressman Aime Forand. It contained covering of hospital costs for the elderly on social security basis. The AMA introduced a voluntary ‘eldercare plan’ against this, and in response the government expanded its legislation and Medicare and Medicaid were formed. Framework of U.S. Healthcare: U.S is the only developed country except South Korea that does not provide health care for all its population. Also the private sector dominates the public one. How the system is organized is discussed below: Private health insurance: Employer sponsored insurance: This is the main way common Americans receive insurance, through their employees. This is a part of their benefits package and is administered by both for profit and non profit organizations like Blue Cross/Blue shield etc. Some companies also self inure which means they pay for the
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He was ordained a minister at the young age of 25 but once again faced discrimination with the United States white clergy. Therefore, he migrated to England and completed his degree at Queens College in Cambridge. Today, Alexander Crummell (1819 – 1898) is regarded and respected as one of 19th centuries leading black intellectuals, whose long and turbulent career as an orator, teacher, writer and minister would always be remembered in the pages of history.
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