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The Water-Balance - Research Paper Example

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To get this amount, one needs to have data of the amount of the water lost in the processes of evaporation and transpiration. Usually, during high temperatures, the rate of evaporation is…
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The Water-Balance The Water-Balance Water-balance expressed by looking into the amount of precipitation in the atmosphere. To get this amount, one needs to have data of the amount of the water lost in the processes of evaporation and transpiration. Usually, during high temperatures, the rate of evaporation is high, therefore, affecting the amount of precipitation in the atmosphere. To have a clear view of water balance, we look at the stresses placed on water bodies, and then evaluate the hydro-climatic processes experienced in different regions. A look into the period of surplus, deficit, usage and recharge characteristics gives us a view into water budget of a given region (Hess and Tasa, 2010). Let us consider two regions: Berkeley, California a west coast Mediterranean climate and Terre Haute, Indiana which has mid latitude continental climate.
Berkeley, having the Mediterranean climate, experiences a distinct wet and dry season. It is a relatively dry environment. This region experiences high precipitations at summer times when compared to Terre Haute, which experiences high precipitation, at winter times. Both regions have a surplus during winter, around January February, and March. Berkeley has the highest surplus recorded in January which is at 10.4 cm, whereas, Terre Haute has highest surplus recorded at 7.8 cm in March. A surplus occurs when the soil storage of water is at 10 cm. Deficits occur when the soil storage is 0 cm, in Berkeley deficits are in June through to October with values ranging from 3.2 to 8.7cm. In Terre Haute deficits in July August and September are familiar with values of 0.9, 5.6, 1.2 cm respectively. Berkeley has high values due to the dry season during the summer.
In the mid-latitudes, the winter results to surplus values, and the low rates of evaporation allow for the storage of water in the soil. Spring, on the other hand, represents water utilization whereby the water stored during winter gets used up. Negative values are commonly observed in the changes of stored water, in May, June, July. Come summer, there is a shortage due to high rates of evaporation. Fall is the recharge period with moisture addition to the soil as a result of the declining levels of evaporation and cooling of the atmosphere. Positive values in the change, in soil storage, in October, November, and December is common, when compared to Berkeley summer time high temperature, and low levels of precipitation result to the deficit. High precipitation values recorded during winter and thus a surplus is inevitable during this time. Recharge occurs during the fall when temperature levels lower, usage occurs during spring when water that was stored during winter is utilized this is observed in April, may, June, a negative value is observed in the change, in stored water (Hess and Tasa, 2010).
Berkeley has the Mediterranean climate it is a fairly dry environment. It experiences both dry and wet season. High precipitation rates observed during winter time and highest temperatures during the summer. On the other hand, Terre haute has a mid latitude climate, situated in longitude 84° 49’ W to 88° 4’W, latitude 37° 47 (N) to 41° 46’N it experiences high precipitation levels during summer months. Average monthly temperatures lie at highs of 88.8 degrees to a low of 15.8 degrees.
Reference
Hess, D., and Tasa, D. (2010). McKnights PhysicalGeography:A landscape Appreciation. Upper Saddle River: Prentic Hall. Read More
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