Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Livingstone, Sauer and French Regional Geography - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
The reporter states that while Carl Sauer and David Livingstone each contributed to geography, they represent very different modes of thought. Livingstone traveled at the end of the nineteenth century, an age of intense exploration…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER94.6% of users find it useful

Extract of sample "Livingstone, Sauer and French Regional Geography"

Download file to see previous pages Livingstone, initially a missionary, explored Africa during the new imperial age of exploration opening new paths for European ideals. Coming into close contact with Africa’s slave trade, he intended to replace the slave trade with Christianity and commerce as carriers of the “civilization” he felt Africa needed, but he was not successful as a missionary and made numerous geographical errors (Sykes 1996). His miscalculations nearly sacrificed his Zambezi expedition and he thought he had found the source of the Nile only to realize later that it was the upper Congo (Sykes 1996).
Sauer is considered one of the founding fathers of American geography marking the initial separation of physical geography from human or cultural geography. His predominant concern was the relationship between people and their environment and he stressed the importance of anthropology. Coming from a scientific background, his purpose was a scientific observation of other traditions and religions. In his presidential address delivered to the Association of American Geographers in 1940, Sauer explains his academic three-point underpinning to the study of geography including the studies of the history of geography, physical geography, and anthropology (Sauer 1997).
The main difference between Livingstone and Sauer can be found in anthropology, which stresses the importance of avoiding ethnocentricity. Livingstone, an example of the contrary, considered the Africans “wild” and described them as “humans of a lower form” (Crawfurd 2005). Sauer was a follower of human geography feeling “human geography... is a science that has nothing to do with individuals but only with human institutions, or cultures” (Sauer 1997) and remained interested in how the environment is managed.
“The design of science that Montesquieu, Herder, and Buckle forecast, failed because we know that natural law does not apply to social groups … We have come to know that environment is a term of cultural appraisal which is itself a ‘value’ in cultural history” (Sauer 1997). ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Livingstone, Sauer and French Regional Geography Essay”, n.d.)
Livingstone, Sauer and French Regional Geography Essay. Retrieved from
(Livingstone, Sauer and French Regional Geography Essay)
Livingstone, Sauer and French Regional Geography Essay.
“Livingstone, Sauer and French Regional Geography Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Livingstone, Sauer and French Regional Geography


... is actually the study of the interface between the land and the ocean, and includes both human and physical geography of the coast. Meanwhile, biogeography is actually the study of how species are distributed geographically and historically. (7) Some of the pros in the construction of a dam, as showed by the construction of the Aswan Dam in the Nile River, include increased flood and drought control, increased agricultural production, electricity generation and higher employment. However, there are also cons in constructing a dam, which includes dislocation, erosion, siltation and pollution. (8) The type of geography that is being practiced in the paper is physical geography. The paper actually found out that there was a “region-scale...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Zheng's Contribution to World Regional Geography

...?Zheng He's Contribution to World Regional Geography This essay is concerned with the exploratory voyages of Chinese Muslim Zheng He, and why this did not lead to Chinese hegemony. It considers the differences between these expeditions and those of other medieval explorers such as Vasco de Gama, and how Zheng He’s achievements are now being interpreted. Introduction Zheng He (1371-1435) may not be as well-known, at least in the west, as other explorers of medieval times such as Magellan and Columbus, even though he was earlier and covered a larger area. According to Bishop et al (2004, page 21) he was castrated while very young and taken from his home to the Beijing palace. However according to Israeli ( 2001) the admiral had already...
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper

Explain the differences in similarities between french regional geography and the development of cultural landscape geography under the influence of carl sauer

... surface through culture remains unquestioned. He said, culture provokes action, responses and adaptation by humans. “Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium, the cultural landscape is the result. Under the influence of a given culture, itself changing through time, the landscape undergoes development, passing through phases, and probably reaching ultimately the end of its cycle of development. With the introduction of a different – that is an alien – culture, a rejuvenation of the cultural landscape sets in, or a new landscape is superimposed on remnants of an older one,” Sauer (1925), The Morphology of Landscape.” University of California Publications. French regional geography was the effect of external forces taking place...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Comparison Between Livingstone and Sauer

...Comparison Between Livingstone and Sauer While Carl Sauer and David Livingstone have both contributed to contemporary geography, they are products of very different time periods characterised by very different modes of thought. As such, the final product of their professional careers is also quite different. To better understand the differences between the two geographers, a brief look at the two time periods is needed. Livingstone conducted his travels at the end of the nineteenth century. This time period is marked by the intense exploration of unknown lands and the propagation of Western ideals and beliefs as well as commercial ambitions. Sauer, however, began to head the geography department at Berkeley in 1923, when geography...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Carl Sauer

SAUER Carl Sauer led the field of cultural geography from the Berkeley School of Geography, advocating ‘humane’ use of environment as seen in ruralcultures. He said cultural, physical and human geographies adapt to their environments and made cultural landscape geography the science’s main branch.
His idea of ‘human cultural action’ indicates culture provokes action, responses and adaptation by humans. “Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium, the cultural landscape is the result. Under the influence of a given culture, itself changing through time, the landscape undergoes development, passing through phases, and probably reaching ultimately the end of its cycle of development. With the introduction of a differen...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay


...Jerry Ciacho May 5, Japan: A Developed Country Introduction to Japan Japan, regarded as the most developed nation in the entire continent ofAsia, is among the most industrial and advanced country all over the world. Located in East Asia, its capital and largest city is Tokyo. Nearly all speak Japanese as their first language. The currency used is Yen and it holds about 128,000,000 people. Also known as the Land of the Rising Sun, Japan is currently a leading economic supremacy and is a major exporter and importer. Geography The archipelago of Japan is a group of 6, 850 islands lying on the Pacific Ocean. Together the four major land masses and its surrounding islands make up the Japanese Archipelago. Japan consists of about 70% forests...
2 Pages(500 words)Research Paper


... the large population of youth. Food processing industry a vital factor in French economy since it produces considerable trade surplus. References Audiganne, A. (2010).Les Population Ouvrires Et Les Industries De La France. Paris: BiblioBazaar Publishers. Steves R. & Smith S. (2008) Rick Steves France. Avalon Travel. Thomson R. & Chandler V. (2005) Changing Face of France. Hodder Wayland. Discussion Questions What are the main contributors to the France economy? Why should tourists visit France? What are the main products exported by France? Name the main mountains in France?... Physical features France is bordered by the English Channel and the Atlantic Ocean on the northern and southern sides. France is known for its picturesque landscape...
2 Pages(500 words)Research Paper


... Aug. 2011. Rowntree, Lester, Lewis, Martin, Marie Price and William Wyckoff. Globalization and Diversity: Geography of a Changing World. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall, 2010. Print. ********************** (paragraph 1) The current migration patterns in Europe are the internal and the external. The first one refers to people moving from a poor European Union member-country to a prosperous EU member – such as from Turkey, Greece or Albania to either France, Germany or Belgium. Overall, it does not add to the net European population but just moves people around Europe. The second... & Number: European Culture and Economics 05 August Essay many countries are making great efforts to preserve their national cultures because it is...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay


... Geography 2. The three varying Yellowfin Tuna’s categories of sustainability mainly results from the varying fishing application tactics. The Troll, Pole-and-line utilized in U.S Atlantic depicts “Best Choice” owing to its insignificant or nil level of bycatch of Yellowfin Tuna, which is contrary to the Longline technique (MBAF). Conversely, the Longline method depicts “Good Alternative” especially in U.S Atlantic and Hawaii owing to the strict regulations exercised by the respective or supervising authorities. Hence, yielding to the recommendable results compared when there is the absence of the imposed laws. The third category “Good Alternative”, its application is mainly evident worldwide where the coverage encompasses unregulated sea...
1 Pages(250 words)Lab Report


...Geography Geography Q1. What determines the resistance of silicate minerals (silicate rocks) to weathering rates? According to White (2003), over 90 percent of rocks exposed on the earth’s surface are made up of silicates. The strength of the bonds within silicate rocks determines the weathering rate. According to Velbel (1999), the classification of silicate minerals is founded on the number corners per tetrahedron shared with neighboring tetrahedral. The rate of weathering is silicate rocks depend on the extent of connectedness between the rock particles. “The more polymerized the silicate mineral’s structure, the more resistant to weathering it appears to be” (Velbel, 1999, p.680). Q2. Explain why joints and other fractures in rock...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment

The French Revolution

...Popular Protest in the French Revolution The French Revolution generally refers to a period of social unrest and political reorganizations that occurred between the years 1787 and 1795. The activities leading up to this period have been widely discussed and studied, with a variety of theories and examinations claiming differing factions as playing a large part in the turmoil. One of the most popular theories includes the idea that the fall of the monarchy was simply a result of the fall of the social class with which it was most closely associated, that of the feudal nobles. According to this view, the nobility, led by the parliaments, challenged the monarchy as it had done several times in the past. This time, though, the rising urban...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

The French Revolution: The Profession of Faith by Rousseau

.... Part - 2 a) The direction, intent and the spirit of the revolution are amply evident in Robespierre’s address to the members of the National Assembly in 1794. The speech reveals many aspects of the revolution and it is not difficult to trace the ideas contained in it to the reformist literature of the Enlightenment period. The most striking aspect of the French revolution was its bloodiness. Tens of thousands of people who tried to resist the changes were brutally guillotined. The majority of the victims belonged to the aristocratic and noble families as they are the ruling class. People loyal to the monarchy and sympathetic to counter-revolutionary forces were also not spared this fate. In what is regarded as an act of retribution...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Napolon III Emperor of the French

...Napoleon III Napoléon III Emperor of the French (Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) was President of France from 1849 to 1852, and then Emperor of theFrench under the name Napoléon III from 1852 to 1870. He was the last monarch to rule France (Wikipedia, 2006). Early Life Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the Kingdom of Holland (, 1995). Louis Napoleon was born during the height of his uncles, Napoleon Bonapartes, success. He grew up in a life of privilege, and developed very liberal idealism. After an extremely unsuccessful coup in the 1830s, he was exiled from France by the then King Louis Philippe (he...
8 Pages(2000 words)Assignment

Macro Economic Policies of the French and German Governments

In contrast, the Socialist Partys Ségolène Royal has made large spending promises which would cost, according to estimates by the Economist (2006), €49 billion per year by 2012. That is almost a third more than the expenditure planned by the current government, and there are questions as to whether the faltering French economy will be able to support such levels of expenditure.
In the three months to September 2006, the quarterly GDP growth rate was zero, when the Bank of France had forecast growth of half a percent. Many economists believe that the flat growth in the third quarter of the year was merely a correction from the 1.2% growth in the second quarter, a view that was born out by 0.7% growth in the...
11 Pages(2750 words)Assignment

The French New Wave

...The marvelous five directors that made the French New Wave were Francois Truffaut, Claude Chabrol, Eric Romer, Jacques Rivette and Jean- Luc Godard. Directors like Alain Resnais, Agnes Varda, Louis Malle and Chris Marker are also considered as belonging to the movement. But the above mentioned five formed a group of film critics who turned into film making later. The total energetic ambience for the new film movement was set by two great institutions in the history of French cinema ----Cahiers du cinema and The Cinematheque Francaise .Cahiers du Cinema is a militant journal for new film movement founded by the film theorist and critic Andre Bazin in 1950. He edited the journal until his death at the age of forty in 1958.All the five...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

The Geography of War and Peace

... by countries to exert influence or pressure on other regions for political and economic gains and benefits. It can be a one sided exchange or a symbiotic relationship. Flint has come to the conclusion that the new geopolitics of the twenty first century will be through terrorism. His observation is that this form of influence or pressure is essentially a shock and awe tactic. The general trend of this terrorism based geopolitics is more political than economic. The rise of the United States of America as the world’s only superpower had caused an imbalance in political ideology. The collapse of the Soviet Union resulted in the prevalence of capitalist ideology over communism. While this has not resulted directly in the increase of terrorist...
10 Pages(2500 words)Assignment

Marketing to Local and Regional Markets: Tourism Organisations

...Marketing to Local and Regional Markets: Tourism Organisations Executive Summary The report deals with marketing of tourism in the regional and localmarkets. Marketing is undoubtedly the most important aspect for any organisation as it directly deals with the clients and includes various measures from informing the target group of customers to selling the product or service and post-sale services. The report emphasises the changing role of marketers amidst globalisation and essence of regional and local marketing. It also has discussed the important aspect of market segmentation. The basic of any marketing initiative is appropriate selection of marketing mix. The report has dedicated sections for the purpose which discusses product, price...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

Sarinas Position in Balleen Regional Hospital

...Balleen Regional Hospital - Case Study Sarina’s position Sarina’s case is a typical situation of unhealthy organization culture leading to the de-motivation of an employee. As seen from the case, she is an old and faithful employee of the organization. She has risen from the bottom of the ranks and now holds a managerial position. However, she finds herself stuck in a bureaucratic culture of the organization now where the upper management is too busy to understand the problems faced by the employees at the lower levels. Another external force that is worsening the situation for her is that of the organizational restructuring happening on account of the financial pressures on the organization. As the company has resorted to cost cutting...
8 Pages(2000 words)Case Study

Foundations of Urban and Regional Environments

...Foundations of Urban and Regional Environments Introduction Urban and regional environments are faced with a number of dynamics in the modern dispensation. The environment stands in the face of urban and regional developments. There are a number of factors that affect the environment today. The urban set ups together with regions continue to grow at unprecedented rates. Population increase and buildings continue to characterize life in the urban dwellings. All over the world, governments and different organizations are in constant dwell to find an amicable solution in curbing the rise of populations and buildings in the cities and towns and cities. It is also critical to note that urban and regional set ups are the hub of industries...
11 Pages(2750 words)Term Paper

Regional Efforts to Mitigate Climate Change

...Global Climate Change and Regional Efforts to Mitigate This Climate Change Introduction Climate can be defined as the general weather conditions of certain regions along with temperature, rainfall as well as wind. Global warming is recognized as an increase in the average temperature of the atmosphere on the earth. India is the second country in the world in terms of population, but it exhibits a wide diversity of temperature (Leiserowitz & Thaker, 2011). China is a developing country in the world, which is also a most populated one. The climate and ecological environment of China is complex. China has faced the problem of regular dangerous weather condition. In this regard, to protect the nature and mitigate the issues relating to global...
6 Pages(1500 words)Coursework
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Livingstone, Sauer and French Regional Geography for FREE!

Contact Us