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Name: Assignment: Institution: Cycles and Patterns in The Biosphere Introduction The biosphere consists of all living things on the earth, both animals and plants. It's a natural component of all other earth systems which include the three environmental spheres; atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere…
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The biosphere provides a room where a cycle of biological process like decomposition, nitrogen fixing, photosynthesis of plants and respiration takes place. The ingredients also cycle in a way that they the biosphere allows the living things to take and also return them to the other spheres in a pragmatic way ( Smil &Vaclav 23-58). There are several factors that determine the biosphere which include; water, shelter, light and nutrients. Climatic conditions that vary from different places on the earth also influence the biosphere in a big way. These factors influence the cycles that take place upon the earth like the oxygen cycle, nitrogen cycle, geochemical cycles, biochemical cycle and the photosynthesis process. These processes ensure there is life on earth, for instance, when plants release the oxygen and the animals breathe in oxygen and release back the carbon dioxide that is used for photosynthesis. As a result of the biosphere cycles and process, the earth has not been altered and therefore provide a friendly environment for all living things ( Jorgensen, Sven and Brian 3-20). Oxygen Cycle Its the biochemical process that shows the movement of oxygen from the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere which is done through the process of photosynthesis ( Alcamo & I E 234-260). As the hydrologic cycle enables movement of water from the sky down to the earth, oxygen also is cycled in a certain pattern in the environment. In the process of photosynthesis, plants use the sunlight energy to convert carbon dioxide, then water into carbohydrates and oxygen. Plants play integral key role in the oxygen cycle because they breathe in carbon dioxide and breathe out oxygen; photosynthesis includes plants that grow in the land areas as well as the water and oceans. There is also a small percentage of oxygen that is produced from photolysis when energy through radiation breaks down the water in the atmosphere and nitrogen oxide into atomic elements, including more components hence leaving some oxygen in the air. Animals breathe in the oxygen produced from the plants in the process of photosynthesis and breath out carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The carbon dioxide breathed out by animals is therefore released into the atmosphere hence forming the continuous cycle of oxygen. In the process, plants during the day, they use the oxygen to break down the carbohydrates; same as the animals break down the carbohydrates during respiration. For the rate of metabolism to be maintained, plants do absorb oxygen from the air and give carbon dioxide to the air like the animals do. Plants produce a lot of oxygen during the day as compared to the night because of availability of sunlight, although in times whereby plants consume a lot of oxygen during the night, can lead to low oxygen levels in marine areas. Carbon dioxide is also released into the atmosphere when organism decay and bacteria consume oxygen through decay mechanism and process. The cycling process of oxygen also takes a place between the biosphere and lithosphere when the marine biosphere creates calcium carbonate element that contains oxygen. As ( Harman& Rebecca 50-100) points out, the biosphere extracts nutrients from the rock elements which enables a release of oxygen into the atmosphere and that the ozone layer has been created in the stratosphere due to the oxygen that is
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...?Geography: Hydrosphere, Biosphere & Lithosphere Describe the paths of water through the hydrologic cycle. Explain the processes and the energy gains and losses involved in the changes of water between its 3 states. Operationally, we often most concerned with water does when it reaches the solid earth, both on the surface and in the sub-surface. Explain the relationship between the saturated zone, the water table, a ground water well and the cone of depression, all within the sub-surface. In the hydrological cycle, the water circulates between the oceans, the atmosphere and the continents. The water can exist in any of the three states during the transportation, i.e. as vapor expressed as humidity, as liquid in the form of droplets...
...? Unemployment in South Africa Lecturer The rate of unemployment can be defined by either the ILO harmonized definition, the national definition, or the OECD harmonized definition. The unemployment rate as per the OECD harmonized is the number of unemployed people as a percentage of workforce force (the total number of employed persons and those unemployed). The International Labor Organization defines unemployment as the number of workers who are currently not working, although are willing and able to work for the available pay, have actively searched for work, and are currently available to work (Timmons, 2008). Hence, the rate of unemployment can be referred to as the number of people who are actively looking for work divided... Unemploymen...
...Our Biosphere, Our Future What would the future be like for the next generations if we do not change the way we treat our planet now? A concern for future generations should motive us against any future encroachments against nature. To examine this, we will specify the problem, offer solutions, consider ethics, and propose measures. The central problem is the way we abuse nature will use up her ability to bounce back. Future generations may not be able to enjoy opportunity for healthy lives simply because we are not using our planets resources wisely. Without clean water, clean air, clean food, and an environment free of toxins, the likelihood that people will not be as healthy is a given. This problem is no secret.
Nevertheless, we must...
...Is policy makers' concern relating to business cycles justified Give reasons for your answer. What policies have traditionally been used to damp downthese cycles
Business cycles, also known as economic cycles, consist of periodic fluctuations in economic activity concerning its long-term growth trend. A typical business cycle involves periodical shifts between rapid growth of productivity, recovery and prosperity, and periods of stagnation or decline. These fluctuations are usually measured by the real gross domestic product (GDP). One of the policy makers' main roles is to smooth out the business cycle and to reduce its fluctuations by narrowing the margin between the stages of growth and decline.
The term "cycle" can be rather...
...Growth and Business Cycles In discussing the future of business cycles in the United s, I am personally rather an optimist. This is primly due to the fact that I believe in today's world people for the most part are sort of helpless spenders. More money is being made by more people in various different fashions, and that figure does not seem to be slowing down in any way. I think that recessions which be much shorter and fewer of them at that, and this is mainly again due to the spending habits of the public. High priced luxury items seem to be the craze of even the average person, seemingly regardless of their income.
In regards to which major trend I think will have the biggest impact on the business cycle, I believe...
...Running head: System Development Life Cycle Development and Relevance of SDLC Management Information Systems Accounting Finance
System Development Life Cycle
In order to develop new systems organizations can select among four basic systems development life cycles:
Rapid Application Development (RAD)
Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle
A traditional SDLC has the following characteristics:
Identify need for a system
Problem identification and solution.
Technical design layout
A traditional SDLC is often represented by "Waterfall" model.
The Waterfall Model
The Waterfall Model, often recognized as classic life cycle...
...Biogeochemical Cycles: Hydrologic Cycle Hydrologic Cycle, also known as the water cycle, refers to constant movement of water on, above and below thesurface of the Earth and this process has a vital role in the conservation of Earth’s water. In the process of hydrological cycle, water is in constant motion cycling from ocean to sky to earth and the pathway of this cycle makes this constant motion possible. Precipitation, which is a familiar part of the hydrologic cycle, falls on the land surface and then enters into various pathways of the hydrologic cycle. Therefore, the pathway of the cycle covers different regions from ocean to sky to earth and it covers all the Earth systems such as atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere...
... Business Cycles Q1. Business cycle is a major economic phenomenon that poses challenges and problems to economists in their attempt to stabilize the economic growth rate and stability. Each economy faces the changes in economic cycles that results in instability and brings different economic problems. During the recession for instance, the rate of unemployment rises and the inflation rate declines (Stock and Watson 56). The period is characterized by low level of investments and decline in the GDP.
Considering the data of US in 2012, US can be said to be in the expansion cycle. Expansion cycle is the upward movement from the recession and the subsequent rise up to the next peak (Moore 36). This is because of the increase in the GDP...
...Introduction 2 Patterns: 3 Problem: 4 Pattern 2: Redundant Server Infrastructure: 8 Pattern 3: Maximization of the Bandwidth: 10 Problem: The connectivity between remote offices, business partners for their necessary applications gets affected by the fault broadcast domains. This affects the connectivity between them and the access layer switches. 10
Pattern 4: Firewall security infrastructure design 12
Cyber Guard, firewall software has been identified recently as outdated and failure in challenging the security standards. However, there is a growing necessity to enhance security standards to reach the rations of the business purposes. 12
The pattern redundancy in Acme Enterprise’s Data Network is a group...
...Running Head: Dietary Patterns and Diseases Habitual Dietary Patterns and Diseases s Habitual Dietary Patterns andDiseases
When the discomfort is caused by an abnormality of the mind or the body, it is known as a ‘Disease’. It has been observed and added to its definition that people also get distress, dysfunction, and even dies who are afflicted with some disease. In broader terms, injuries, syndromes, symptoms, disabilities, infections, atypical variations of structures, and deviant behaviors are also used under the umbrella of the Disease. However, when pathogens invade the body, it is called a Disease, in narrow sense.
In nutrition, when a person consumed an amount of food, it is known as ‘Diet’. When an individual makes some...
In this context, it should be mentioned that Schuler et al. (1998, 159) there are a few issues that need to be taken into consideration when formulating the human resource strategy of a particular organizational environment: ‘a) the business structure, b) the legislative and employment relationship context, c) the patterns of HRM competence and decision-making and d) the national culture’. The above views are supported by Gooderham et al. (1999, 507) who stated that ‘despite their very different assumptions, both rational and institutional explanations of organizational structure and management practices predict similarity among firms that operate in the same industry within the context of a simple country’...
...Behavior patterns in children from the view of Sigmund Freud 2007 Outline: A) Developmental stages Oral 2. Anal 3. Phallic 4. Latency 5. Genital
B) ‘Family romance’
C) The Id, the Ego and the Super-ego
According to S. Freud personality development theory involves two variables, the interaction of which makes up a personality. These are biological determinants and environment in which parental behavior plays an important role particularly during infancy.
According to Freud personality is composed of the id, ego, and superego. In this theory Freud managed to integrate biological and environmental variables – the id introduces instinctual drives while ego helps to keep balance between urges of the id and rules of society...
It is estimated that 3.4 million more young people cast their ballots in this election than in the election of 2004, and the surge in youth turnout accounts for at least 60 percent of the total increase in voter participation in 2008. Voters under the age of 30 increased their share of the overall electorate to 18 percent, up to one percentage point from the previous 1996 to 2004 elections, according to the National Exit Polls (NEP) conducted by Edison and Mitofsky. (Pawlenty, 2008, p. 2) The impact of the youth vote proved crucial in claiming the battleground states of Florida, Ohio, and Virginia. Thanks to the youth vote, these electoral college vote-rich states were successfully converted to blue (Democratic) states (Bell, 2008...
Both Creationism and Intelligent Design theories are inferior to the Evolution Theory. There are sound reasons behind this argument. One of the most imperative reasons behind the superiority of Evolution Theory over Creationism is this that the former defines and determines all the processes, both biological and intellectual, which has brought astounding changes in human life during the course of time, with soundproofs and scientific experiments. On the contrary, Creationism only focuses on the religious beliefs of human creation, which belong to the three Abrahamic religions i.e. Judaism, Christianity and Islam and are not acceptable for the atheist, secular and non-Abrahamic religions. Moreover, both Creationism and Intellige...
The victims are usually women, children, elderly people, physically or mentally challenged persons and partners in gay or lesbian relationship (Steiner, 1996). Domestic violence is a far-reaching and social problem which has raised many serious debates. While many sociologists argue that domestic violence is mainly a male- perpetrated issue, many others believe that women are as violent as men in intimate relationships. The issue of domestic violence, especially against women, is not new and in fact, the domestic violence movement is at least 3 decades old. The movement has caught a lot of public awareness and has got many protective laws enacted. Many extensive networks of services have been started to help the victims of domesti...
...Introduction to British Politics: To what extent is social the best indicator of twentieth-century voting patterns in Britain? Social continues to play a significant role in the electoral outcomes of all modern democracies. This is particularly true in Britain, as the nation still grapples with a historical legacy that is rooted in class divisions. Having embraced democracy toward the later half of the nineteenth century, political institutions have evolved to function around existing class demarcations. While class consciousness still plays a major role in British polity, it may no longer be the primary force of policy making that it once was. This essay will attempt to assess the relationship between social class and election...
... Biogeochemical cycles A biogeochemical cycle is a cyclical pathway through which all nutrients stream in to the living components from the nonliving and then back to them. Bio means living, geo means rocks and soil and chemical means the involved processes. Out of the gaseous and sedimentary cycles, the two basic types, the former is global. The reason being its major nutrient pools are the atmosphere and the oceans, hence making it so. “The three most important gases for life are nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide. They are present in steady quantities of 78, 21 and 0.03 percents respectively, in atmosphere” (Smith, pp. 475).
(Figure: Smith, pp.475)
A nitrogen cycle consists of a gas phase and a mineral phase. Since plants require...
...Outline why absolute levels of productivity are irrelevant in determining specialization patterns and why relative levels of productivity are the relevant consideration in the decision to allocate workers between various tasks.
Absolute level of productivity are termed as irrelevant in determining the specialization patterns because in any organization or in any work place the solutions which are related to the closed form are derived in order to have the factor related to the immobility case. It is not necessary to have the better level of productivity if the working conditions or patterns are in the right direction or way. (Hall, pg 540)
In order to determine the absolute level of productivity, deep insight is required with the help...
X & Y chromosomes where X is for female and Y for Male. The chromosomes are mainly classified either on the basis of their banding or on the basis of the position of the centromere i.e. the central point of every chromosome. The basic constitutive component of these DNA molecules, euchromatin and heterochromatin is the main factor on which the DNA on all these chromosomes differ from each other. Still, on some of the chromosomes e.g. 1, 9 and 16 show heterochromatin in their centromere region where as Chromosome Y is also considered to contain more heterochromatin. (T. STRACHAN and A. READ, 2004,p19)
There usually are two strands in mitochondrial genome i.e. H and L strand. The H strand is supposed to encode more genes i.e. 28...
For this shocking discovery, any discussion of social class and mobility would be ineffective without discussing poverty. The trends of poverty from the late 1960s through the 1980s became inexorable and more concentrated in inner-city neighborhoods worsening conditions in cities with the 1990s being the most hit. However, fluctuations in concentrated poverty are not solely due to population growth or reduction in a fixed set of neighborhoods3. There is a persistent movement in and out of poverty cycles by people that automatically offset each other.
Poverty is a threatening social phenomenon and efforts to discover its causes are equally difficult. The stereotypic and simplistic clarification persist- that the weak ar...
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