Air Pollution - Research Paper Example

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[Author’s Name] Air Pollution Introduction Air pollution is associated with adverse health effects. These health effects have been linked to both particulate and gaseous components of air pollution, and to both acute and chronic exposure…
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Download file to see previous pages More importantly, there were very few public agencies and academic institutions tracking environmental health effects caused by air pollution on a regional scale. This lack of regional-scale environmental health monitoring and studies has raised the concern and awareness of both regional municipal administrations and the general public in recent years. A fundamental assessment of air pollution and related adverse health effects is needed. Exposure and Health Effects of Air Pollution Air pollution is a complex mixture of particles and gases that can vary in composition depending on geographic location, season, and time of day. In urban settings it consists primarily of particulate matter derived from motor vehicle and industrial emissions, primary gaseous pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and the secondary pollutants nitrogen dioxide and ozone (Pope, III and Dockery 709 - 710). Respirable particles are generally classified by aerodynamic diameter and fall into three main modes: a nucleation mode (smaller than 0.1 ?m); an accumulation mode (between 0.1 ?m and 1 ?m); and a coarse mode (larger than 1 ?m) (Pope, III and Dockery 709 - 742). ...
cles are present in much higher numbers and present a greater total surface area per unit of mass to carry reactive co-pollutants and interact with cellular targets. Particle size will determine the probability of deposition in different regions of the airways and may impact on clearance dynamics and physiologic responses. Compared to larger particles, fine and ultra fine particles are more likely to deposit in the gas-exchange regions of the lungs, and may not be as readily phagocytosed as larger particles. In addition to size, the inherent toxicity of particles may relate to their composition, with metals in particular being associated with toxicity (Pope, III and Dockery 709 - 742). For air pollution exposure studies, the most prevalent air pollutants are ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and the usual diseases under study have included respiratory and cardiovascular disorders. PMIO can increase susceptibility to respiratory infectious diseases and exacerbate asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) (Stephania et al. 810 - 817). PM and Ozone are also associated with cough, premature death, bronchitis, and decline in lung function. Ozone promotes asthma and causes respiratory illness, especially among children (At a Glance 1-4, Stephania et al. 810 - 817). Although immunological, developmental, and reproductive effects are also mentioned in some papers, such studies are not as common as those examining respiratory or cardiovascular effects (At a Glance 1 - 4, Stephania et al. 810 - 817). Initial epidemiologic studies focused on health effects in the days following periods of severe air pollution. Episodes of extremely high air pollution such as the Meuse Valley Fog of 1930 and the London Fog of 1952 were associated with ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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