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Introduction to Terrorism - Case Study Example

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TERRORISM Terrorism Definition: Although the scholars have not defined any comprehensive and unanimous definition of terrorism, the term simply means one or more acts conducted by the individuals, groups, organizations or communities, in order to threaten, hurt and harm their rivals and opponents by applying weapons or any type of destructive material in order to obtain political, religious, cultural or racial gains and benefits…
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TERRORISM Terrorism Definition: Although the scholars have not defined any comprehensive and unanimous definition of terrorism, the term simply means one or more acts conducted by the individuals, groups, organizations or communities, in order to threaten, hurt and harm their rivals and opponents by applying weapons or any type of destructive material in order to obtain political, religious, cultural or racial gains and benefits. The main reason behind determining some specific definition of terrorism includes the difference of opinion and variation in the criteria the `communities maintain while defining the acts of terrorism; as act, committed by an organization is taken as terrorist offence by the rivals, though the same one is regarded as a sacred and patriotic performance by the offenders. For instance, 9/11 terrorist attacks on the twin towers were condemned by the USA and her allies, while the same were celebrated with jubilance by the subjects belonging to the Muslim world. Similarly, an overwhelming majority of the world raised demonstrations against the US invasion on Iraq by declaring it as the terrorism on the part of the western world; however, the USA and her allied viewed it as an act to destroy the terrorist government of Saddam Hussein. (Ahmad, 2002) Criteria used to define Terrorism: The world blames the Nazi government for spreading large scale terrorism by harassing the Jewish community on the one hand, and pushing the entire world into the state of bloodshed, mayhem and ruination by waging an unnecessary war in order to dominate over others. Hence, the US-led global political block always censures the lust of the states to dominate over others in the light of the violence and aggression observed by the German leadership during WWII, yet the USA forgot her personal war-monger activities that have resulted in the annihilation of peace from the very face of the globe. Reasons behind committing Terrorism: Since terrorist act is not performed from a legal national or international platform, so its activities are unjust, illegal and unlawful ones, which are liable to be condemned and punished. Basic objective behind the committing of such violent offence against humanity is causing physical and mental torture as well as destruction of political, economic and religious establishment of the opponents. The theorists, intellectuals and philosophers allege social injustices and inequalities as the root-cause behind the expansion of terrorism in the world. (Ahmad, 2002) Thus, such nefarious schemes are designed in order to obtain personal benefits in political and economic fields on the one hand, and in the pursuit of cultural dominance and supremacy over others on the other. Ahmad's recommendations to America: Ahmad (2002) looks for the minimizing of the US influence in the third world countries, which she has been implementing through her policies and strategies, which are not only destabilizing the local governments, but are also turning the masses strictly against the only existing super power. The author is of the opinion that the USA should not openly support her allies against the Muslim world, as this act of her is increasing gulf between the USA and the Muslims at large. The author is justified in his claim as the third world considers the USA as the responsible for their backwardness due to the very reality that she and her subsidiary international organizations have no concern with the poverty and paucity the third world has been undergoing for the last many decades. On the contrary, all international organizations are busy to impose the western law and culture in the third world in order to sustain the 19th century imperialism in the form of so called new world order. (Anghie, 2005) Thus, entering into friendly relationship with the poor countries would earn respect and sound reputation for the USA. American Revolution an act of Terrorism: Some of the historians also take the American Revolution 1776 as the outcome of terrorist movement launched by the purported freedom-lovers during 18th century. Kalyvas (2003) is of the opinion that the political actors used violence to achieve multiple, overlapping or mutually contradictory, goals even during the American Revolution, where they violated every prevailing law and put the peace of the country in serious jeopardy. Not only this that the US freedom was won in the aftermath of terrorist attacks on the state institutions, but also the French and Russian Revolutions, took place in 1789 and 1917 respectively, were also regarded as terrorist movements against the traditional monarchies. However, the supporters of these movements always try to justify their struggles provided these helped out in winning equal human rights for the masses at large. Just War and Right to Revolution: Just war refers to the war being fought for some great, legitimate and rational cause against the unjust and cruel group, nation or country. During the WWI, both the sides i.e. the Central Powers as well as the Allies, claimed to be justified in fighting against each other; the same was the case in WWII during hostilities between the Axis Powers and the Allies. During the US invasion on Vietnam during late 1950s, the USA declared her every atrocity and violation of human rights as justified act. Moreover, she repeated her claim on destroying Afghanistan and exercising extremely shameful atrocities in Abu Ghuraib prison of Iraq during her attack on the Middle Eastern state. The same was the situation in Arab-Israel Wars, where both the warring factions claimed justification on fighting for some noble cause. Similarly, the masses also regard lawlessness, nepotism, atrocious government and extremism as the root-causes behind bringing revolution in the country. The famous Iranian Revolution of 1979 had also socioeconomic reasons behind it, though it was named as the religious one in nature. Grant (1979) argues that the Iranian forces locked in combat are on the one side those of the autocratic monarchy, supported by the capitalist and landlord classes, backed up by the military and police. Facing them is the working class and the middle class who look to the Muslim clergy, particularly the Ayatollah (Holy Man) Khomeini in exile in Paris. Consequently, the entire nation viewed the Revolution as the just one due to the very fact it contained elements of equality and justice in it. Hezbollah and new definition of Terrorist Organization: Hezbollah serves as an organized patriotic national Lebanese organization, which fought a very successful fight against the well-trained Israeli army in 2006, and forced the regular forces of Israel to retreat. Since Lebanese army and law and order agencies were not in a position to defend the boundaries of their country, the organization gallantly fought against the invading neighboring state for the protection of the Lebanese sovereignty. It is not a secret anymore that the Israel had the US support behind her, while Hezbollah was being aided by Syria and Iran, yet standing firmly against the regular force was really an astounding matter, which put the globe in a state of utter shock. It was noted that the all the Lebanese including the Christians, Shiites and Sunnis joined hands and fought shoulder to shoulder under the command of Hezbollah, which not only gave Israel a decisive blow, but also forced her to withdraw the invasion eventually. “Conducted at the height of the war, the BCRI survey's most striking finding is that 70% of Lebanese expressed support for Hezbollah's initial July 12 operation to abduct Israeli soldiers (71% expressed support in a 2006 BCRI survey) and 87% expressed support for Hezbollah's subsequent "confrontations" with the enemy. (Mideast Monitor, Sep 2006: Vol. I, No. 3) Thus, the Hezbollah’s act gave new meaning to terrorism of modern times. List of References Ahmad, E. (2002). Straight talk on Terrorism Monthly Review, 53 (8) Retrieved June 14, 2006, from Anghie, Antony. (2005) Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Making of International Law Cambridge University Press Grant, Ted. (1979) The Iranian Revolution retrieved from Kalyvas, Stathis N. (2003) The Paradox of Terrorism in Civil War Retrieved from Keeley, R.V. (2002) Trying to Define Terrorism Middle East Policy, vol.9, no.1, 33-40 Mideast Monitor. September-October (2006) Lebanese public Opinion Volume I No. 3 (Quoted in Read More
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