Masters Research Proposal Assignment - Dissertation Example

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Research Proposal Name Student Number Course Professor Date Contents Page 1. Background 3 2. Industry Background 10 2.1 Research questions 11 2.2 Hypotheses 11 2.3 Objectives 11 3. Methodology 11 3.1 Data collection 13 3.2 Sampling 15 3.3 Practical issues and resources 15 3.4 Reliability and validity 15 4…
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Download file to see previous pages Some empirical research provides evidence in support of such an assumption (Jenkins, Mitra, Gupta & Shaw, 1998; Brown and Heywood, 2002), others however, within the realms of psychology indicate that incentives can in fact have adverse effects on performance (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Deci, Koestner & Ryan, 1999; Ryan & Deci, 2000; Deci & Ryan 2003). A growing and more substantial body of research and studies provide evidence of conflict between intrinsic motivation (a person’s own motivation for undertaking a task) and extrinsic motivation (external and conditionally imposed motivation for undertaking a task) (Benabou & Tirole, 2003; Holmstrom & Milgrom, 1991; Kreps 1997). Motivational theorists consider that for each and every thing we do (behavior and actions) there is a fundamental reason or cause; in other words it influences our behaviour’, our choice of behaviour and its permanence, and the amount of effort put into it (Delmar & Wiklund, 2008). They also believe that appreciation of the causes will enable prediction and thus allow for influence on those behaviors or actions (Franken, 2002). Current research and theories have evolved and advanced since those of Skinner (1938) who considered performance based on motivations from a behavioral viewpoint, while Maslow (1943; 1954) extended his needs hierarchy to accommodate motivation in terms of people seeking to satisfy needs within a systematic order that progresses from physiological, to safety, to social, to esteem and finally self-actualization. His needs hierarchy accounted for the significance of satisfying the needs of employees if motivation was to be induced and fostered (Nelson, 2009). Motivational research today focuses mainly on the determination of what spurs motivation - what stimulus is required to increase motivation - and takes both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation into consideration. Intrinsic motivation according to Oudeyer & Kaplon (2007) is best understood when contrasted with extrinsic motivation, which relates to any activity that is undertaken because of some of kind of reward or discrete outcome. Intrinsic motivation by contrastive definition refers to activities that are undertaken solely for pleasure with no price or value imposed on it (Ryan & Deci, 2000). An important distinction however, is that intrinsic and extrinsic do not mean the same as internal and external and are not synonymous. Internal motivations receive internal rewards, whereas external motivation receives external rewards; intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation however is not determined by where the reward comes from but on the type of reward that is given (Oudeyer & Kaplon, 2007). The theory of incentives has traditionally assumed that concrete or intangible -money, power or investments- (Hoy & Miskel, 1991) rewards given for specific activities with the intent of their re-occurrence will manifest motivation and in turn output; to some, this translates as the more money given by the employer the more effort there will be from the employee (Festre & Garrouste, n.d.). Researchers such as Benabou & Tirole (2003) have shown that monetary or tangible rewards are not always the best means for obtaining employee effort; they claim that intrinsic incentives can be ‘crowded out’ by extrinsic incentives (p.490). They further explain how incentives based on performance can have adverse effects on the perceptions of the activity or of a ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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Research proposal
The traditions of a country influence the option of its accounting techniques and the penetration of its different accounting evolutions (Belkaoui and Picur, 1991). In contrast, countries have distinguished their own accounting criterion that has tended to mirror their own precise environments (Evan and Taylor, 1982).
8 Pages(2000 words)Dissertation
Research proposal Masters in Education
What I aim to investigate in this study is weather the origin of the instructor have any effect on the classroom learning. A study shows that vast percentage of U.S students perceived that accent and pronunciation of the instructor is extremely important in classroom learning, 42.9% and 48% respectively.
4 Pages(1000 words)Dissertation
Research proposal
Some empirical research provides evidence in support of such an assumption (Jenkins, Mitra, Gupta & Shaw, 1998; Brown and Heywood, 2002), others however, within the realms of psychology indicate that incentives can in fact have adverse effects on performance (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Deci, Koestner & Ryan, 1999; Ryan & Deci, 2000; Deci & Ryan 2003).
6 Pages(1500 words)Dissertation
Research proposal
As a consequence, the globalisation commitment entered into by countries in multilateral agreements was met with slow progress and considerable suspicion by political and civic groups. Businessmen were quick to see the advantages, however, of gaining access to new markets opening up across borders.
13 Pages(3250 words)Dissertation
Research Proposal Assignment
In order to prevent this, societies develop laws as well agencies which enforce them. Those who break the law are said to have committed a crime and are punished by law enforcement agencies. However, while these agencies are traditionally linked with catching the criminals after the crime, they are also tasked with prevention crimes before they happen (Dressler, 2002).
8 Pages(2000 words)Dissertation
Research Proposal
Such factors shall pertain to either firm specific or country specific resources and attributes which exert an influence over the eventual choice of a mode of entry of a multinational firm into the host country. During the third quarter of the twentieth century, globalisation was considered a largely political issue, with implications concerning foreign dominance and power wielded by rich, developed nations over the developing and underdeveloped Third World countries.
14 Pages(3500 words)Dissertation
Research Proposal
Thus, the advances in science and technology are now focusing research and development projects in the field of renewable energy. Renewable energy sources are arguably the future of human survival in this world. One of the very important paradigms of research in the field of renewable energy sources is solar energy.
7 Pages(1750 words)Dissertation
The Research Proposal
UK is one of the leading industrial nations in the world with major contribution towards the overall industrial output of the world. Greater London is one of the largest administrative areas in UK with significant concentration of industry and other services related firms.
8 Pages(2000 words)Dissertation
Research proposal
When one is travelling, he/she meets people not of his/her language and the need for effective communication if required. When one is doing a research work, the knowledge of another language is key for reliable and valid results. At times also one is forced to have the knowledge of another language after a change of culture, religion or when one wants to understand how others think.
12 Pages(3000 words)Dissertation
Research proposal
Outsourcing has been defined to pertain to a company’s transfer of its operations offshore which enable them to cut down the costs of their operations (Doye 2005). Notwithstanding this particular scenario, outsourced companies continue to adopt measures by which they ensure that the products and services that they offer to their customers retain their quality (Doye 2005).
6 Pages(1500 words)Dissertation
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