Literature review: Fruit content of fruit juice and apple juice content in cider using DNA methodology 1. Background information Fruit juice production is a high-value trade involving international beverage companies. This industry is concerned in producing juices for soft drinks (orange juice, apple juice, grape juice etc.), alcoholic drinks (wine, cider, perry etc.) and other fruit-based products such as jams, jellies, ice creams and yoghurt…
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For instance, orange (Citrus sinensis) juice is more in demand and thus have a higher value than mandarin (C. reticulata) juice though both belong to the Citrus species. Fruit varieties are qualitatively graded using characters such as composition and quality of syrup and this too makes a vast difference in prices. Therefore, especially in mass-scale fruit juice production, the producers may be tempted to adulterate highly-priced products with a less expensive alternative to increase the product volume and thereby gain better profits. Such adulteration may be in the form of diluting with water, sugars, high fructose corn syrup, spent process water and addition of juices from less expensive fruit varieties (as with orange juice dilution with mandarin). Authentication is an important issue in food industry and it is essential to provide the consumer with correct information about the contents of a product. Food labeling and traceability are regulated by EU directive 2000/13/EC and its amendments and by EU regulative 178/2002 respectively (Commission Regulation (EC) No 13/2000 and Commission Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). ...
antitatively as well as qualitatively and determine the actual ingredients in a product to protect high quality of food products and thereby certify consumer rights. 2. Detection methods used in fruit juice industry In fruit juice industry, many technologies have being used to detect composition of a product. In the past, Analysis of total nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) was practiced to assess fruit content of (eg. orange) juice but, this method could be applied only when levels of these components are well documented. Hence it was apparent that other methods were in need and hence minerals, organic acids (citric acid, malic acid), amino acids and sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) were analyzed. During past years, assessment of food products has been conducted using spectroscopy (UV, NIR, MIR), isotopic analysis, methods based on chromatography (High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), LC, TLC, GC MC and LC MS), electronic nose, immunological methods such as ELIZA and thermal analysis (Reid, O’Donnell and Downey, 2006). Paper chromatography and HPLC has been used in detecting sugars and acids, Gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and electrophoresis for amino acids and chemical analysis for acidity are some examples for these applications. Lately, as reported by Li, Goovaerts and Meurens (1996), Near- infrared spectroscopy (near-IR) was used to detect sugars (glucose, sucrose, fructose) and acids (citric and malic acids) in orange juice. Each of these methods has their own advantages as well as limitations and thus, more refine and more sensitive technologies were in constant demand. Anthocyanin pigment analysis with HPLC and electrospray mass spectroscopy (ESMS), stable isotopic carbon analyses, NMR spectroscopy and analysis of trace
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2 Pages(500 words)Literature review
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