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Monitoring the glucose level as well as alteration in expression of m-RNA and protien levels of glucose transporters(GLUT4) in d - Research Proposal Example

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Research Proposal Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes mellitus is one of the global predominant diseases. Vitamin D and its receptors are present in almost 30 types of tissues (pancreas, myocardium and lymphocytes, etc.,) showing its importance to the human body…
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Monitoring the glucose level as well as alteration in expression of m-RNA and protien levels of glucose transporters(GLUT4) in d
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"Monitoring the glucose level as well as alteration in expression of m-RNA and protien levels of glucose transporters(GLUT4) in d"

Download file to see previous pages The reduction of insulin activity removes the glucose transporter in the urine samples out of the body. This concludes that glucose level monitoring and the Vitamin D level monitoring is very important for the type 2 Diabetes patients.1 When the Vitamin D binds to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a heterodimer is formed. This hetereodimer then binds to the DNA and initiates many cofactors leading to the increase in the transcription of the genes that are responsible for the production of the proteins that control the calcium homeostasis. Vitamin D regulates the insulin receptor gene expression at the genetic level. The mRNA that codes for insulin receptor gene is produced at large numbers by increasing the expression level. The increase in the insulin receptor will increase the binding of the insulin and makes the GLUT4 transporter gene translocation from the intracellular level to the plasma membrane. 2 This increase in flux increases the glucose metabolism and thus controls the type 2 Diabetes mellitus in humans.GLUT 4 contain the phosphate at the basal state. The phosphorylation of GLUT4 is mediated by the cyclic cAMP- dependent protein kinase inhibiting the glucose transport.2 Scientific Background: A study was carried out in the year 1993, to identify the genes that are responsible for the regulatory domain of the GLUT4 in the adipose tissue. The transcriptional regulation of the gene was studied in the murine C2C12 skeletal muscle cell line. Transient transfection of the 5’ and 3’ deletions of the GLUT4 5’ flanking DNA has identified a region of 281 base pairs present at the myotube-specific expression. 3 The total RNA was isolated and used for Northern Blot analysis and hybridization was carried out. This gene was then inserted into the luciferase EcoRI- DraI fragment plasmid and further analysis was carried out. 3 The GLUT4 mRNA was found to be dependent on the thyroid hormone. This region was also found between the -517 and -237 region. This 281 base pair region is found to play a major role in understanding the mechanism that controls the GLUT4 gene expression in the skeletal muscle. All these experiments were carried out in the rat model.3 The vitamin D deficiency is found to be associated with the impaired insulin secretion. When Vitamin D is supplied at sufficient level then it binds to the vitamin D receptors (VDRs) present in the pancreatic beta cells. VRD gene is present in the Chromosome 12-cen-q12. When allelic variations are done in the VDR receptor gene then glucose absorbance rate also varies. The genomic DNA was extracted from the four healthy individuals and the four SNPS at the intron 8 and Exon 9 was examined with the controls. 4 The peripheral blood samples were analyzed for the given SNPS at the VDR gene using the polymerase chain reaction and then by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The restriction sites looked for were TaqI, ApaI, BsmI and Tru91SNP. 4 It was found that the genotypes were similar in both the patients and control. This concluded that VDR is not the major gene for the Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Hence further research is necessary for finding the responsible gene for Type 3 Diabetes mellitus.4 The vitamin D is not only the factor that is responsible for the insulin resistance. There are other factors too. The 25- hydroxyl vitamin D (25(OH)-D) is found to be inversely proportional to the insulin resistance and the (25( OH)-D) concentration is determined in the serum for the analysis. The association between the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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