Nobody downloaded yet

Monitoring the glucose level as well as alteration in expression of m-RNA and protien levels of glucose transporters(GLUT4) in d - Research Proposal Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Research Proposal Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes mellitus is one of the global predominant diseases. Vitamin D and its receptors are present in almost 30 types of tissues (pancreas, myocardium and lymphocytes, etc.,) showing its importance to the human body…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.2% of users find it useful
Monitoring the glucose level as well as alteration in expression of m-RNA and protien levels of glucose transporters(GLUT4) in d
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Monitoring the glucose level as well as alteration in expression of m-RNA and protien levels of glucose transporters(GLUT4) in d"

Download file to see previous pages The reduction of insulin activity removes the glucose transporter in the urine samples out of the body. This concludes that glucose level monitoring and the Vitamin D level monitoring is very important for the type 2 Diabetes patients.1 When the Vitamin D binds to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a heterodimer is formed. This hetereodimer then binds to the DNA and initiates many cofactors leading to the increase in the transcription of the genes that are responsible for the production of the proteins that control the calcium homeostasis. Vitamin D regulates the insulin receptor gene expression at the genetic level. The mRNA that codes for insulin receptor gene is produced at large numbers by increasing the expression level. The increase in the insulin receptor will increase the binding of the insulin and makes the GLUT4 transporter gene translocation from the intracellular level to the plasma membrane. 2 This increase in flux increases the glucose metabolism and thus controls the type 2 Diabetes mellitus in humans.GLUT 4 contain the phosphate at the basal state. The phosphorylation of GLUT4 is mediated by the cyclic cAMP- dependent protein kinase inhibiting the glucose transport.2 Scientific Background: A study was carried out in the year 1993, to identify the genes that are responsible for the regulatory domain of the GLUT4 in the adipose tissue. The transcriptional regulation of the gene was studied in the murine C2C12 skeletal muscle cell line. Transient transfection of the 5’ and 3’ deletions of the GLUT4 5’ flanking DNA has identified a region of 281 base pairs present at the myotube-specific expression. 3 The total RNA was isolated and used for Northern Blot analysis and hybridization was carried out. This gene was then inserted into the luciferase EcoRI- DraI fragment plasmid and further analysis was carried out. 3 The GLUT4 mRNA was found to be dependent on the thyroid hormone. This region was also found between the -517 and -237 region. This 281 base pair region is found to play a major role in understanding the mechanism that controls the GLUT4 gene expression in the skeletal muscle. All these experiments were carried out in the rat model.3 The vitamin D deficiency is found to be associated with the impaired insulin secretion. When Vitamin D is supplied at sufficient level then it binds to the vitamin D receptors (VDRs) present in the pancreatic beta cells. VRD gene is present in the Chromosome 12-cen-q12. When allelic variations are done in the VDR receptor gene then glucose absorbance rate also varies. The genomic DNA was extracted from the four healthy individuals and the four SNPS at the intron 8 and Exon 9 was examined with the controls. 4 The peripheral blood samples were analyzed for the given SNPS at the VDR gene using the polymerase chain reaction and then by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The restriction sites looked for were TaqI, ApaI, BsmI and Tru91SNP. 4 It was found that the genotypes were similar in both the patients and control. This concluded that VDR is not the major gene for the Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Hence further research is necessary for finding the responsible gene for Type 3 Diabetes mellitus.4 The vitamin D is not only the factor that is responsible for the insulin resistance. There are other factors too. The 25- hydroxyl vitamin D (25(OH)-D) is found to be inversely proportional to the insulin resistance and the (25( OH)-D) concentration is determined in the serum for the analysis. The association between the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Monitoring the glucose level as well as alteration in expression of Research Proposal”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/gender-sexual-studies/1416927-monitoring-the-glucose-level-as-well-as-alteration
(Monitoring the Glucose Level As Well As Alteration in Expression of Research Proposal)
“Monitoring the Glucose Level As Well As Alteration in Expression of Research Proposal”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/gender-sexual-studies/1416927-monitoring-the-glucose-level-as-well-as-alteration.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
The Scientific Reasoning Level of Students In the Faculty of Science In King Saud University
By scientific reasoning, I mean the principles of reasoning such as experimental design, testing of hypothesis as well as data interpretation, which are applicable to the quest of scientific knowledge (Mintzes, 2006, p. 150-155). Science involves inquiry, integration of different theories with scientific knowledge, developing scientific methods, and understanding the nature of science.
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Proposal
The impact of employee satisfaction levels on customer satisfaction: Starbucks Rochester, NY
In order to decrease the price competition among the competitors, the organizations are seen to use various differentiating strategies that can lead to offering of better services. One of the most dominating strategies is to increase the satisfaction of the employees, which will establish better service climate, thereby creating satisfaction and loyalty among the customers.
17 Pages(4250 words)Research Proposal
Blood Glucose Levels
Glycated hemoglobin (HgBA1c or HbA1c) is indicated as the percentage of a person’s hemoglobin that is glycated. It is done to prove how well the blood sugar has been controlled over time. The test provides an average of a person’s blood sugar control
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
Blood Glucose Level
Trying to interpret blood glucose level (BGL) results can often be a frustrating activity. In many cases there appears to be no rhyme or reason for the fluctuations in client's BGLs. When we find markedly raised BGL following capillary testing, how many of us immediately ask our patient what they ate
11 Pages(2750 words)Essay
Platelet Expression of COX1, IL1 and IL10
They are produced by megakaryocytes; which are huge progenitor cells. The megakaryocytes release the platelets through a series of complex processes. The megakaryocyte mature and become polyploid, accumulating massive protein and membrane. The megakaryocyte then
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Proposal
GLUT4 glucose transporter
Initially these monosaccharides have to be activated to high energy donor molecules to act as precursors for glycan synthesis. This activation process requires nucleoside tri phosphates(like UTP or GTP) and a glycosyl-1-phosphate and is catalysed by a kinase.
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay
Economic considerations of having Type I Diabetes
Hence, the disease is due to an auto immune disorder and can even lead to serious consequences. The major symptom of this impaired glucose metabolism arising from the Type-1 complication is due to the lack of insulin in the blood stream. The excess glucose that is not subjected to tubular reabsorption is excreted through urine.
2 Pages(500 words)Research Proposal
Employees should have an expectation of a right to privacy in the workplace, e.g. electronic monitoring of computer usage, phone calls, video surveillance should be eliminated or restricted
It is beyond doubt that employees deserve privacy at the workplace as this adds impetus to their performance by increasing their freedom. In reference to this, what is the position of
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Proposal
Influence of blood donation on levels of water-soluble vitamins
This arises when one does not feed on a balanced diet after blood donation (Kalus et.al 2008). The third problem reported is fainting during blood donation. Some researchers say that almost a quarter of blood donors faint during or immediately
3 Pages(750 words)Research Proposal
E-WOM : Detremination the consumer level of trust towards the written word in an online context
The use of the internet has increased significantly. Households as well as business organizations have started making use of the internet. It has become an important medium of communication in the current business world. Written words that are published online act as an important source of information for the customers.
10 Pages(2500 words)Research Proposal
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Research Proposal on topic Monitoring the glucose level as well as alteration in expression of m-RNA and protien levels of glucose transporters(GLUT4) in d for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us