The Competitive Advantages of Apple Inc - Literature review Example

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Literature Review: Apple Table of Contents Literature Review: Apple 1 Table of Contents 2 Literature Review 3 Interrelationship between Leadership and Organizational Commitment 3 Creativity as a Competitive Advantage 9 How strategies influence consumer behaviour 10 Reference 13 Ind, N…
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The Competitive Advantages of Apple Inc
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Download file to see previous pages John Wiley & Sons. 15 Bibliography 17 Literature Review Interrelationship between Leadership and Organizational Commitment In the year 1993, Drucker had mentioned that the performance and quality of the managers are significant influential factor to decide organizational success. A company without effective leadership would not be able to transform the internal resources to its competitive advantage. It would not be denied that there is a close relationship among the leadership style and organization development. In the year 1990, Bass made one study in which it was pretty observable that around 45 % to 65 % of the total factors which are responsible of causing either success or failure would be decided by the organizational leaders. Definition of Leadership Leadership is an ability to persuade any group towards the attainment of goals. In the year 1964, Tannenbaum and others have considered leadership as an influential factor in human relations. Leadership is an attribute guiding a group of people to achieve preset goals through communication. According to Fiedler, leadership can be assumed to be a type of relationship to make the group members work together and achieve common goal. Rauch and Behling in 1984 and Hsieh in the year 1993 considered leadership as a process to influence any group to approach the goals. Theories of Leadership Since twentieth century, a number of theories and literature had been introduced to prove different standpoints. Four major perspectives had been shown through these theories. Some of the theories are articulated in the later segment (Wu et. al., 2006, p.438- 440). Trait Theories According to Stogdill (1963) and Davis (1972), a successful leader must posses certain personality traits. Behavior Theories In 1957, Halpin and Winer had introduced two dimensions, initiating consideration and structure. Following the same, a number of studies conducted by Stogdill, Likert and Kotter also introduced certain behavioral attributes of leadership. Contingency Theories In the year 1967, Fiedler has introduced the contingency model of leadership. In the year 1971, House came up with a path-goal theory by extracting details from the research carried out by Ohio State University as well as the expectancy theory of motivation. In the year 1977, Blackchard and Hersey introduced situational leadership theory considering two leadership sides in terms of relationship behaviors and tasks and mix and matching the intensity of these two to come up with specific leadership types: selling, telling, delegating and participating. As per Contingency theory, the leaders of any group are required to opt for an appropriate leadership style considering the readiness of the following group. The selling style can be effective for willing but unable subordinates; while, the telling styles can reap good results for the unwilling and unable followers. Leaders usually use participating style when his or her followers are willing but unable. The delegating style seems to be good for followers who are able but unwilling to do the tasks (Wu et. al., 2006, p.438- 440). Non Charismatic Theories: These theories include the theories on transformational and transactional leadership styles. These two are pretty well known in the arenas of leadership theories. According to the transactional leadership theory, both superior as well as the subordinate would influence each other to derive value of that exchange. Transactional leader ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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