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A Program Evaluation to Determine if the United States Military Support to Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies Is Adequate in Curt - Dissertation Example

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CHAPTER III: Methodology This is a qualitative study which aimed to (a) explore broader understanding of the extent of Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations (MDTO)’s illegal operations by evaluating the magnitude of illegal drug trade using reports from Mexican police and authorities ; (b) determine the roles of the state to free the country from drug cartel using the Mexican criminal laws and other state policies; (c) know other causes that hinder authorities to quell this heinous crimes; (d) evaluate the significance, extent, resource capacity and feasibility of deploying Military Support to Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies (MSCLEA) to help interdict DTO across the Southwest Border.; an…
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A Program Evaluation to Determine if the United States Military Support to Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies Is Adequate in Curt
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CHAPTER III: Methodology This is a qualitative study which aimed to (a) explore broader understanding of the extent of Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations (MDTO)’s illegal operations by evaluating the magnitude of illegal drug trade using reports from Mexican police and authorities ; (b) determine the roles of the state to free the country from drug cartel using the Mexican criminal laws and other state policies; (c) know other causes that hinder authorities to quell this heinous crimes; (d) evaluate the significance, extent, resource capacity and feasibility of deploying Military Support to Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies (MSCLEA) to help interdict DTO across the Southwest Border.; and (e) provide workable recommendations and mechanism on how support system be accorded to Mexican authorities by re-examining policies of the country-intervenor viz-a-viz international rules. This chapter will provide details on the research design’s appropriateness, the description of subject population, the method for acquiring informed consent, confidentiality, the sampling frame, and other information about how this research will be undertaken such as the use of instrument in acquiring data, the method for data collection, the research questions, and hypotheses including a brief summary of the chapter. Research Design and Appropriateness Qualitative research systematically predefined procedures to answer the question by collecting evidence to produce desired findings. It aims at gathering “culturally specific information about the values, opinions, behaviors, and social contexts of particular populations’ to pro complex textual descriptions about peoples’ experiences on specific issue (Duffy,1987). It provides information about the “human” side of the matter by baring contradictory behaviors, beliefs, opinions, emotions, and relationships of individuals or respondents (Duffy,1987). Qualitative methods are also effective in identifying intangible factors, such as social norms, socioeconomic status, gender roles, ethnicity, and religion. It uses semi-structured methods like in-depth interviews, focus groups, and participant observation. Triangulation In this study, the researcher will employ triangulation approache to generate data, information, perspectives, as well as in the substantiation of interviews and insights sifted from secondary sources. This combination is plausible because triangulation, as a method in social research, combined different methods, perspectives or theoretical viewpoint (Duffy,1987). Using tripods as symbol for exploration of information, researcher will take three significant points to “complete” the understanding on drug cartel and how could this be addressed strategically (Duffy,1987). Duffy (1987) defined triangulation as “the use of multiple methods, theories, data and/or investigators in the study of a common phenomenon” and helpful to strategize possible potential convergent validity and theoretical forecast (Breitmayer, Ayres, and Knafl,1993) . Triangulation is an analytical methodology that could bare two or more sources (Polit and Hungler, 1995). Triangulation has many types, to wit: a. Data Sources Triangulation which use time, space, and person are used as sources which is often used in longitudinal studies to identify changes or patterns within a continuum of time (Duffy,1987). b. Investigator Triangulation- uses a number of observer, interviewer, coder, or data analyst in the study to ensure credibility of the findings (Duffy,1987). c. Methodologic Triangulation is used to clarify issues of confusing literature. It is also known as mixed method or multimethod in reference to data collection. Other researcher would consider this as a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods that interrelate convergent of paradigms to balance flaws and strengths (Breitmayer, et.al., 1993). This type of study can either be within-method triangulation and between- or across-method triangulation which uses survey questionnaires or focus group discussions interviews either for qualitative or quantitative study. d. Theoretical Triangulation use multiple theories or hypotheses in exploring a phenomenon with an intent of maximizing varied lenses in understanding a problem and such precepts that may come from opposing viewpoints (Breitmayer, et.al., 1993). e. Data-Analysis Triangulation combined a number of methods for analysis such as statistical testing to validate data. Triangulation as a method helps lend credibility for a research of a phenomenon by integrating varying perspectives and clarifying the issue being investigated (Breitmayer, et.al., 1993). It can help improve reliability of findings because researchers maximize epistemologic preferences and are framed with an intention to “explain behavior and events, their components, antecedents, corollaries, and consequences” (Breitmayer, et.al., 1993). Population and Sample Considering the limits and scope of this study, researcher will maximize purposive sampling by simple but careful screening of possible participants with knowledge on the issue at hand or are directly or indirectly involved in the operations relating to the interdiction of drug cartel in the previous years. Whilst in the process of triangulation, researcher may use a combination of focus group discussion as a tool in gathering information among respondents: (a) Mexican police enforcers and authorities, (b) civilian volunteers and (c) US soldiers who had been assigned in Mexico as forces mandated to help interdict illegal drug cartel in the previous years. This can be reinforced with data from in-depth interviews using key respondents to further validate theoretical findings. In the conduct of interviews, he may use snow-balling sampling, a method that will lead researcher from one person to another with deeper understanding of the issue tackled, taking into account the varying explications and recommendations of respondents about drug trade in Mexico. Informed Consent Researcher will send out formal invitation to potential respondents for the focus group discussion and for personal interviews. The communication will contain a briefer of the review of the study, its purpose, and how the study aimed to produce desired (a) strategic impact of interdicting illegal drug cartel within Mexico; (b) strengthening of security for Mexican people affected by illegal drug trade; and (c) lessening of crimes attributable to drug trade or to drug addiction. The invitation will also ask respondents to affirm the consent statement by checking a box, a manifestation that one had signified consent for FGDs and/or interview. The ethics committee will review and approve the protocol whether informed consent needs to be obtained for each data collection activity. Typically, formal informed consent. Whether this informed consent is oral or written depends on a number of project-specific factors and ultimately upon approval by the ethics committee. Confidentiality Respondents will be assured of confidentiality by the researcher and their personal identities will not be disclosed to the public unless there is prior consent from them. Output of the focus group discussions and interviews will be encoded into the computer as data base and will be consolidated. Such electronic data will be safely retained with secured password for five years from the completion of the dissertation requirements. Ethical Guidelines The ethical guidelines intend to provide a context for discussion and to safeguard research participants’ interests. This fundamentally deals about how interaction between researcher and his respondents are dealt based on standards. The researcher will also commit to exercise professional ethics in mentoring relationships and observe laws on intellectual property, be sensitive to issues on fabrication of data and plagiarism, among others. Instrumentation The research aim to explore broader understanding of the (a) extent of Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations (MDTO)’s illegal operations by evaluating the magnitude of illegal drug trade using reports from Mexican police and authorities ; (b) determine the roles of the state to free the country from drug cartel using the Mexican criminal laws and other state policies; (c) know other causes that hinder authorities to quell this heinous crimes; (d) evaluate the significance, extent, resource capacity and feasibility of deploying Military Support to Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies (MSCLEA) to help interdict DTO across the Southwest Border . Researcher will use historical mapping as an instrument to gather information to assess the length of period whence this illegal drug trade is operating within the region. Historical-mapping will also be used to determine the length of period of the series of intervention introduced by United States of America in the region, including the outcome and impact of these interventions. Historical-mapping is also useful in outlining the present laws and policy of Mexico that were legislated as a response to the problem of illegal drug trade in the region. Researcher will use all search engine of the internet to access all relevant literatures that can help substantiate this study. Books and other related journals which can be obtained in national libraries can also be maximized. Researcher will further use set of questions for the conduct of focus group discussions with authorities in Mexico to gather their perspectives and opinions about their domestic strategies in interdicting illegal drug trade and to determine the problems that hindered them to successfully and effectively quell this crime. Researcher will also formulate series of questions that will be utilized in his interviews with key respondents of the study. Gordon Allport (1961) argued that one of the most prevalent ways to gather information about people's thoughts, feelings, attitudes, and behaviors is to ask them. Researcher will use triangulation to complete a broader understanding of illegal drug trade by focusing on these three factors: (a) Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations (MDTO)’s illegal operations by evaluating the magnitude of illegal drug trade using reports from Mexican police and authorities ; (b) state roles and policies to free the country from drug cartel and the causes that hinder successful interdiction of illegal drug trade; and (c) significance and resource capacity of deploying Military Support to Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies (MSCLEA) to help interdict DTO across the Southwest Border . Questions for the focus group discussion and interviews will revolve in these three factors too. In gathering desired information about the background of respondents in the focus group discussion and interviews, the researcher will use Demographic Questionnaire. Demographic questionnaire consist of queries relating to respondents educational background, trainings attended, and about their entrepreneurial experiences.  Data Collection   The collection of the data will be done by documenting and recording the process of interactions by researcher and respondents in both focus group discussion and snow-balling interviews. Respondents should be fully informed of the recording and documentation processes so that they can determine what shared information are considered off-the record and be treated with confidentiality by the researcher. All documentation and recording will be encoded and stored in a data base. All of these will be consolidated using Microsoft word and Microsoft Excel spreadsheet format. Researcher will be carefully treat with appropriateness all useful data thoroughly, accurately, and systematically do field notes, sketches, audiotapes, photographs and other suitable means. Questions and Hypotheses Research Questions To achieve the purpose of this study, the following research questions will help establish the direction of the proposed research: RQ11.   What is the state evaluation from Mexican police and authorities about Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations (MDTO)’s illegal operations based on reports?   RQ22.   What are the state roles and policies to free the country from drug cartel and the causes that hinder successful interdiction of illegal drug trade?  RQ3.       What are the significance and resource capacity of deploying Military Support to Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies (MSCLEA) to help interdict DTO across the Southwest Border ? Hypotheses The proposed research questions presuppose the following hypotheses: H10:    There are sufficient evidences that will affirm the magnitude of illegal drug trade in Mexico that is affecting the security and economic landscape of the country and its neighboring region.   H1a:   There is no positive information that will affirm the supposition about the existence of illegal drug trade in Mexico; H20:   Mexican government assume the state roles and has standing policies that correlate in the effort of freeing the country from illegal drug cartel and has records of successfully interdicting the crime; H2a:    Mexican government has no role and has no policies that will correlate to the effort of freeing the country from illegal drug cartel and has records of unsuccessfully interdicting the crime. H30:     Deploying Military Support to Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies (MSCLEA) to help interdict DTO across the Southwest Border  in Lebanon is relevant in the interdiction of illegal drug trade in Mexico; H3. Deploying Military Support to Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies (MSCLEA) to help interdict DTO across the Southwest Border is irrelevant in the interdiction of illegal drug trade in Mexico; Data Analysis The research will fundamentally use the method of triangulation to broadly analyze and understand illegal drug trade in Mexico. Researcher will also make use of historical mapping to contextualize the findings. Triangulation will also help in correlating multifactors that has contributed to the failure in the interdiction of illegal drug trade in Mexico in the previous years. Data will be collected from carefully chosen authorities and persons. The findings will be consolidated. Hypotheses will be tested by triangulating the information using the three variables discussed in research design. Summary Chapter 3 contained research methodology and its appropriateness as a design in describing with in-depth context the problem on illegal drug trade. It also discussed how analysis will be undertaken; research question and hypotheses. It also discussed how ethics and confidentially will be dealt in the study Chapter 4 will discuss the findings of the proposed study.  REFERENCES Duffy, M. E. (1987), Methodological Triangulation: A Vehicle for Merging Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 19: 130–133. doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.1987.tb00609.x Breitmayer, B. J., Ayres, L. and Knafl, K. A. (1993), Triangulation in Qualitative Research: Evaluation of Completeness and Confirmation Purposes. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 25: 237–243. doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.1993.tb00788.x Polit, D.F., & Hungler, B.P. (1995). Nursing research: Principles and methods (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott. Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary. (1980). Springfield, MA: G.&C. Merriam Read More
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