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School refusal behavior: a - Literature review Example

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School Refusal Behaviour: Literature Review Literature Review The central part of school refusal behaviour is to understand why and how school refusal happens. Having a model or theoretical framework for school refusal has advantages as it shows why young people miss school, how this could be explained and what are the recommendations for assessment for such behaviour…
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School refusal behavior: a literature review
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Download file to see previous pages Research Question 3. What are the reasons given by children and their parents on school refusal behaviour? Research Question 4. What is the relationship among reported reasons for school refusal and parenting styles and do certain parenting styles encourage school refusal behaviour? It has been suggested by many researchers that children avoid school as they tend to avoid negative affectivity and problems at school. There is also an escapism involved as children try to escape aversive school based evaluative situations in which they are monitored, checked or controlled and sometimes they avoid school to pursue other activities that would give them positive self esteem (Kearney et al, 2004). Generally children from all racial backgrounds and income groups could avoid schools and there is no difference seen on the basis of demographic variables. Yet school refusal has been found to be more prevalent among young adolescents and among children who enter school for the first time. Generally refusal behaviour is high among children going to school for the first time and children who have changed schools and have to face a new school environment. In these cases they are prone to refuse going to school as a route to escape from the harsh school environment although this harshness may be all perceived. Children entering a new school as while moving from kindergarten to first grade or from middle to high school, there could be some refusal behaviour (Kearney, Lemos, & Silverman, 2004). However even if refusal problem is high among children, it takes at least 1 or 2 years for them to get diagnosed about the problem or receive any form of treatment. If the child stays out of school for a long time, they become habituated to their lifestyle without school and tend to stay away longer and researchers like Brand & O’Conner (2004) have suggested that girls show more refusal behaviour than boys. This has been explained with the separation anxiety being primarily female so girls feel unsafe and without support I school and may show refusal behaviour. However in another study Last & Francis (1988) suggested that phobic and anxious children tend to be male. Usually refusal symptoms may be seen in young people and usually begins after illness or holiday or after weekends and vacations when young people become used to their way of life. Some children may leave home to actually attend school but finally decide not to attend. According to Strauss (1990), phobic and anxious school refusers tend to have a later age of onset and show more pervasive school refusal compared with those school refusers with separation-anxiety. Certain characteristics such as phobias and anxieties are responsible for school refusal in boys and occur in late stages of life whereas separation anxiety in girls cause them to show school refusal early in life. Some school avoidant behaviours may be associated with severe depression (Kearney, 1993). However there could be triggers such as broken homes, family distress, legal and financial difficulties, family conflicts and disruption, traumatic personal experiences, transitions and illness, and these could cause depression among children and long term consequences such as economic deprivation and marital or professional problems and in some cases psychiatric counselling for social maladjustment (Kearney & Bates, 2005). ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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