Capital invistment apprisals - Essay Example

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Capital Investment Appraisals (Author’s name) (Institutional Affiliation) Introduction Capital investment appraisal is a technique that is used to evaluate a business or potential investment in order to determine whether it is viable depending on the returns and risks that are likely to be involved (Bullock & Jones, 2006)…
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Download file to see previous pages There are 5 techniques that have been employed in this particular scenario: simple payback method; accounting rate of return (ARR); net present value (NPV); and internal rate of return (IRR) (Mott, 1997). Capital Investment Appraisal Capital investment appraisal is the evaluation of the attractiveness and viability of an investment proposal, using techniques like payback period; net present value (NPV); average rate of return (ARR); or internal rate of return (IRR) (Go?tze, Northcott & Schuster, 2008). Investment appraisal is an essential part of capital budgeting and is relevant in cases where the returns cannot be easily quantified (e.g. training, marketing, and personnel). All businesses need fixed assets (capital equipment) like vehicles, premises, and machinery. The acquisition of those assets is called capital investment. Just like other business activities, capital investment comes with an element of risk and uncertainty, because costs are incurred today so as to generate some benefits in the future (Harrison, 2003). Capital investment appraisal techniques are aimed at enhancing and supporting decision making on such investment undertakings. The Appraisal Techniques i) Payback Period Method This technique is based on the time needed for the forecasted net cash flows to equal the amount of capital that has been invested in a potential investment initiative (Mott, 1997). The investment project that repays whatever capital invested in the least possible time is considered to be the most attractive (Gardner, 1998). This technique requires the following estimates: (a) amount of capital needed, and (b) the timing and amount of the net cash flows an investment generates. Advantages a) Simple to compute and easy to understand b) Suitable for risky projects where it is difficult to predict future cash flows beyond the first couple of years (for instance, IT). c) Suitable if short term cash flows are more critical to the survival of an investment than long-term cash flows. d) Suitable when there is a concern regarding gearing or borrowing. Disadvantages a) Does not factor in the time value of money (cash now is often more valuable than cash received later). b) Disregards cash flows when the payback period elapses. ii) Accounting Rate of Return While the payback period method concentrates on cash flows, the ARR concentrates on profit. It measures the forecasted average profit before tax and interest as a percentage of the average capital invested in a business venture. Advantages a) Simple to compute and easy to understand b) Caters for the entire life of an investment c) Compatible with ROCE and the performance ratio Disadvantages a) Does not account for the time value of money b) Does not offer guidance on what is a good rate of return c) Averages can be confusing and misleading d) Disregards the timing of profits e) No uniform definition of terms iii) Net Present Value This is the present value of all the present and future cash flows of an investment, discounted at those cash flows’ opportunity cost. Advantages a) Accounts for effects of inflation b) Adjust future cash flows to a PV (present value) Disadvantages a) Inflation is usually unpredictable b) The longer you go into the future the less reliable the discount ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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