Effectiveness of Physical Education Training Programs in Primary Schools - Essay Example

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In recent years the term training has come into common use with sports coaching. This term is associated with enlightened and good practice which aims at developing coaches’ knowledge and skills in a given sports (Bompa, 2000). …
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Effectiveness of Physical Education Training Programs in Primary Schools
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Download file to see previous pages But it will be realized that in other disciplines the concept has come under sharp criticism in respect of its positive claims which are largely unfounded. For example, Colley not long ago concluded that existing research evidence scarcely justifies mentoring use on such a massive scale, and the movement has not yet developed a clear theoretical base which underpins policy or practice (Colley, 2003). Further, Colley considers most models of training to have been based on what can be described as crude and simplistic concept of empowerment. Thus the mentor is viewed as the most powerful member, thanks to his or her greater age or experience, and the trainee as relatively devoid of power, in anticipation of delegation and trust from the trainer (Colley, 2003). For Colley this conceptualization is problematic because it views power as a commodity possessed and passed on by individuals. Additionally the use of quantitative methods to research physical education training activity has led to highly simplified analysis and eventually category creation (Colley 2003).Thus it impossible to understand how training relationships actually develop. More so, it provides a limited view of what tends to happen as opposed to the endowed possibilities of what can happen (Colley 2003). Despite its notorious potential and the willingness of many to indulge into its accompanying rhetoric then, clarity in relation to the concept of teaching physical education at primary schools and what it actually it takes in practice continues to be limited (Ward & Doutis, 1999). When history is considered it is realized that successful physical education programs have one thing in common and that is that they all use history as a learning process. Example those who prepared and developed the modern physical education programs in the US have benefited from teaching philosophies of Europe (Fromyhr, 1995). Universally, the first modern efforts in order to train contemporary physical education teachers started in the 18Th Century in Europe and in the USA (Armour & Yelling, 2007). In the Ottoman Empire, the subjects of physical education entered the Curriculum in 1846 under the name of Gymnastics (Tiwari, 2007). Therefore Selim Sirri Tarcan attended the Heyet-I Ilmiye which was assembled in 1923 and succeeded in integrating one year long the was termed as physical education teachers school into the government program (Tiwari, 2007). These efforts for training sports instructors or tutors continued by the assistance of three instructors, one woman, two men; Inge Nerman, Ranger Jonson and Sven Alezanderson who were called from Sweden and with the 3,5-9 months lasting courses of physical education teachers during the years (Horne, 1921). From 1932 to1933, a three year long physical education department was commenced at the Gazi Education Institution in Turkey to train teachers for secondary and high school levels. It was the only institution until 1966 to1967 (Zeigler, 1973). A majority of studies have shown the positive influence that physical activity has on students’ academic performance and these are measured by improved grades and standardized test scores (Maher, 2006) . In a research brief published by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (2007), 11 of 14 ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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