The use of intelligence in the military has been often negatively criticized as of its effectiveness. The attack in Pearl Harbor proved that intelligence should not be exclusively related to the military forces…
Download file to see previous pages...
The attack in Pearl Harbor proved that intelligence should not be exclusively related to the military forces. Rather it should be managed in common by civilians and militants. It is the above fact that led to the establishment of CIA in USA in 1947. The above initiative was considered as a solution, which could guarantee the effective prevention of any such attacks in the future. However, the attacks of 9/11 proved that intelligence failures cannot be fully avoided. This paper focuses on the intelligence failures in Pearl Harbor and in the attacks of 9/11. The characteristics of these failures are critically evaluated taking into consideration the conditions – political and technological – of each particular era. Moreover, the similarities and the differences of these failures are identified and explained, as possible, aiming to show the causes that led to the particular events. It is concluded that the attacks in Pearl Harbor would not be easily prevented – because of the lack of effective intelligence mechanisms at that period of time; however, the intelligence failures in the attacks of 9/11 should be characterized as not justifiable taking into consideration the support offered – in terms of human resources, technology and funding – to the relevant initiatives. ...
and in the attacks of 9/11, the ability of researchers to seek for information on the various aspects of these events has been increased – in opposition with other countries where the access to such information is not permitted (Johnson 2007, p.30). In order to understand the intelligence failure in Pearl Harbor and the attacks of 9/11 and to identify the similarities and differences of the above events, it would be necessary to refer primarily to the issue of intelligence, as used in describing the measures taken by countries for their protection against enemies. At the next level, the exact failures of intelligence in each of the above cases should be identified, as possible, and evaluated aiming to retrieve their similarities and differences. The term military intelligence is used in order to describe a series of activities; at a first level, the term is related to intelligence, as a condition showing the awareness on issues, like: ‘a) the military capabilities of foreign countries, b) the potentials of US regarding the country’s armed forces, its military strategy and tactics and the level of knowledge on the use of regions (in the country and outside) for military purposes’ (Keating 2011, GL 15) In Pearl Harbor, the failures of military intelligence could be identified in the following events: despite the fact that a war was in progress, no measures were taken for facing an enemy’s surprise attack (Treventon 2003). Of course, it could be supported that in that period, in 1941, when the attack against Pearl Harbor occurred, the level of intelligence involved in the military was rather limited. The military services engaged in such activities were proved totally incapable of capturing in advance information related to the attack. In other words, a failure
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
As discussed in the paper, over 2, 500 Americans died of the attack on Pearl Harbor, while others were injured. The attack occurred on December 7th 1941, where the first wave of the Japanese airplanes left six aircraft carriers with struck Pearl Harbor before 8 AM local time, and after two waves of terror lasting, the disaster had occurred.
On average, 46 percent said that al Qaeda was behind the attacks while 15 percent say the US government, seven percent Israel, and seven percent some other perpetrator. One in four said they do not know (International Poll: No Consensus On Who Was Behind 9/11, 2010) (See appendix for more details) The 9/11 attacks on Trade Centre and other critical location in America have raised many controversies.
Therefore, the topic enhances or evaluates the existence of various things related with policy making, internal politics, programs of security agencies and administrative procedures of the nation. The disaster has brought considerable changes in the relationship between terrorism threats and crime, U.S citizens and their policies against terrorism.
They aimed at the central and key areas of America. The agenda of the group was to create maximum havoc uponAmerica. The 110 storied Twin Towers of TheWorld Trade Center and the Pentagon were the symbols of American hegemony over the other nations. The Pentagon was the core of American military power, and the Twin towers, the epitome of economic stability.
511). For many of us, with the help of information technology, the events were witnessed in real time. With initial bewilderment we witnessed the first commercial airplane crash into the first tower of the World Trade Center. When the second commercial airplane crashed into the second tower of the World Trade Center, bewilderment turned to fear.
However, they obtained complete surprise with five American battleships, three cruisers, as well as three destroyers sunk while 188 US aircraft got destroyed with the majority of them being on the ground. Although Japanese losses summed up to 29 aircraft, as well as the five inadequate midget submarines intended for participating in the assault, this was a brilliant premeditated victory for Japan.
The reason why these commercial airlines were turned into their controlled missiles was because they were wide bodied, on long flights therefore heavily fueled. Over 3,000 people died and 6,000 were left wounded. An American Airlines Boeing 767 which was heavily loaded with jet fuel about 20,000 gallons was crashed into the north tower of the WTC at quarter to nine in the morning.
This was done to get a responsible and experienced individual to act as leader of the American intelligence community while also remaining as the chief consultant to the President regarding intelligence problems regarding the country’s security. The DCI was also the head of the CIA.
Since time immemorial, The Department of Fire Control has been involved in saving people across America from any kind of accidents caused by fire. Eventually, the strategy, equipment, manpower and most importantly the way of operations changed for better and the department has become more effective.
However we may choose to view it in retrospective, when they happened the 9/11 attacks were definitely both a surprise and profound shock to most American people. Prior to that fateful day in September of 2001, the American people did not have experience of terrorism from close quarters, except for the Oklahoma incident and relatively minor World Trade Center incident of 1993, and one or two major prevented attacks.
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Research Paper on topic A comparative study between Pearl Harbor and the terrorist attacks of 9/11 for FREE!