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A comparative study between Pearl Harbor and the terrorist attacks of 9/11 - Research Paper Example

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The use of intelligence in the military has been often negatively criticized as of its effectiveness. The attack in Pearl Harbor proved that intelligence should not be exclusively related to the military forces…
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A comparative study between Pearl Harbor and the terrorist attacks of 9/11
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Download file to see previous pages The attack in Pearl Harbor proved that intelligence should not be exclusively related to the military forces. Rather it should be managed in common by civilians and militants. It is the above fact that led to the establishment of CIA in USA in 1947. The above initiative was considered as a solution, which could guarantee the effective prevention of any such attacks in the future. However, the attacks of 9/11 proved that intelligence failures cannot be fully avoided. This paper focuses on the intelligence failures in Pearl Harbor and in the attacks of 9/11. The characteristics of these failures are critically evaluated taking into consideration the conditions – political and technological – of each particular era. Moreover, the similarities and the differences of these failures are identified and explained, as possible, aiming to show the causes that led to the particular events. It is concluded that the attacks in Pearl Harbor would not be easily prevented – because of the lack of effective intelligence mechanisms at that period of time; however, the intelligence failures in the attacks of 9/11 should be characterized as not justifiable taking into consideration the support offered – in terms of human resources, technology and funding – to the relevant initiatives. ...
and in the attacks of 9/11, the ability of researchers to seek for information on the various aspects of these events has been increased – in opposition with other countries where the access to such information is not permitted (Johnson 2007, p.30). In order to understand the intelligence failure in Pearl Harbor and the attacks of 9/11 and to identify the similarities and differences of the above events, it would be necessary to refer primarily to the issue of intelligence, as used in describing the measures taken by countries for their protection against enemies. At the next level, the exact failures of intelligence in each of the above cases should be identified, as possible, and evaluated aiming to retrieve their similarities and differences. The term military intelligence is used in order to describe a series of activities; at a first level, the term is related to intelligence, as a condition showing the awareness on issues, like: ‘a) the military capabilities of foreign countries, b) the potentials of US regarding the country’s armed forces, its military strategy and tactics and the level of knowledge on the use of regions (in the country and outside) for military purposes’ (Keating 2011, GL 15) In Pearl Harbor, the failures of military intelligence could be identified in the following events: despite the fact that a war was in progress, no measures were taken for facing an enemy’s surprise attack (Treventon 2003). Of course, it could be supported that in that period, in 1941, when the attack against Pearl Harbor occurred, the level of intelligence involved in the military was rather limited. The military services engaged in such activities were proved totally incapable of capturing in advance information related to the attack. In other words, a failure ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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