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Lung cancer - Research Paper Example

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(Date submitted) Lung Cancer Lung cancer involves the proliferation of abnormal cells of the tissues of the lungs. It could be in the form of adenocarcinoma, squamous carcinoma and large cell carcinomas…
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Download file to see previous pages In the United States, about 203,536 people are found to suffer from the disease regardless of sex with death of over 157, 000 victims in 2010 ( Other countries have showed the same trend. In Europe, many countries showed high rate of deaths with Hungary in the top list having deaths that reached over a hundred victims a day. In Canada, lung cancer accounts for 30% death with cases of women on the rise. Far East Asia is not spared from the disease. Philippines alone have 43 daily cases of deaths. Taiwan and Japan share the same sentiment regarding the disease. China also has continual increase in numbers who die from the disease (Pastorino, 102). This scenario provides a picture that lung cancer is prevalent worldwide regardless of sex. Limiting the incidences of the lung cancer involves understanding the pathophysiology, causes, signs and symptoms, and diagnosis to be able to treat the disease at an earlier stage and to prevent high prevalence of its occurrences. Pathophysiology The normal lung cell consist of two layers namely the columnar cells and basal cells. The columnar that contains mucus and covered with cilia makes up the surface layer. Basal cell which is the second layer contains the nuclei and basement membrane which in turn composes the glands, blood, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. The initial response to a carcinogenic agent occurs in the tracheobronchial epithelium within the basal cells. Number of cells increase as it is triggered with the inhalation of any carcinogenic agents and referred to as carcinomas. This happens because oncogenes which make the body susceptible to cancer are activated. When a carcinogen enters the body, it binds with the DNA of the lung cells causing changes and differentiation of the cell. The structures of the cells are damaged which may cause abnormal growth. As the cell division continues to occur, the damaged DNA is also passed to the daughter cells and undergoes further mutations. Cell growth becomes unstable and genetic changes accumulate. The pulmoepithelium in turn undergoes malignant transformation from normal epithelium to invasive carcinoma (Day, et al, p 558). Among the lung cancer type, adenocarcinoma is the most prevalent. However, when cancer cells metastasize, the tracheal and broncheal lymph nodes are the earliest to show signs of the spread to distant lymph nodes, organs, kidneys and brain. On the other hand, broncheoalveolar type is usually slow in nature than other types. Pleural effusion results as an effect of direct involvement of the pleura, obstruction of mediastinal lymphatics, throracic duct, pulmonary lymphatics, and atelectasis with pneumonitis and pulmonary embolus. Causes Lung cancer is believed to have many causes. It could be provoked with many carcinogens like tobacco smoke, radiations and viral infections. Although the disease is known to be a familial tendency, the risk depends with the exposure to carcinogenic risk factors. Almost all types of lung cancer are caused by tobacco smoke. About 90% of patients seeking medical help are found to be directly exposed to it. The most affected cells are the small squamous types. Tobacco contains multiple components however, not all of these may cause lung cancer. It is known that there are only a few that may really trigger the cells to undergo changes. Mazzone (p1) in his study identified N-nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to be the two most carcinogens that are ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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