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A recent survey of 17 countries revealed that United States has the highest level of illegal cocaine use with nearly 16.2% of people in the United States having used cocaine in their lifetime (Science Daily, 2008). Cocaine is available in two chemical forms – hydrochloride salt which is taken intravenously (by vein) or intra-nasally (through the nose) and freebase which is smoked (Psychology Today, 2008). Issues Related to Cocaine Abuse Cocaine addicts are usually introduced to the drug after they have abused ‘gateway substances’ like alcohol, tobacco and marijuana. According to the national center on addiction and substance abuse (1994), 90 % of the people who tried cocaine had used all three gateway substances before moving on to cocaine. Impact on physical functioning Cocaine use can lead to some immediate physical consequences such as restlessness, euphoria and alertness (WebMD, 2008). These effects are felt within minutes of taking the drug and continue for about 20 to 120 minutes. Other physical effects include insomnia, vomiting, pupil dilation, nosebleeds, increased temperature and pulse rate and rapid breathing (WebMD, 2008). These effects are temporary and mostly disappear after a couple of hours.
Studies reveal that prolonged use of cocaine can have an overwhelming effect on the
‘pleasure centers’ in the brain (Chen, et. al., 1996). The drug interferes, alters, damages and takes control of specialized cells that regulate pleasure, well-being and mood. Therefore, regular use can destroy the brain’s ability to feel normal without cocaine. Long term use can even cause permanent biological drug addiction.
Since cocaine increases blood pleasure, heart rate, breathing and body temperature, long term use of the drug can cause cardiac and respiratory failures, strokes, coma, convulsions and death. The drug can damage the liver’s ability to detoxify blood and can reduce the production of critical enzymes needed for normal body functioning (WebMD, 2008). It can also cause liver cirrhosis or liver cancer. Cocaine use results in the constriction of the blood vessels of the heart resulting in increased blood pressure. This can trigger heart attack, heart failure, irregular heart beat and sudden death. Use of non-sterile needles among cocaine users can result in contracting Hepatitis – a highly contagious disease resulting in serious liver damage and AIDS. Users may also pass these diseases to their sexual partners, unborn babies and others. Regular users of cocaine experience loss of interest in sex, decreased sexual performance and risk of impotence and infertility (WebMD, 2008). In women, the drug use can result in miscarriages, developmental disorders and complications during birth. It can also cause premature separation of placenta from uterus leading to premature births or stillbirths. Smoking cocaine damages the ability of the cells in the lung to process gases. This results in the user experiencing constant cough and shortness of breath. Regular use can result in respiratory failure because the brain stops sending signals to the lung muscles that control breathing and they stop working (WebMD, 2008). Impact on psychological functioning Cocaine has been found to be
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These substances can in turn lead to dependence which basically manifests as behavioral, cognitive, and physiological symptoms which then develop after repeated abuse of these substances. Such dependence can often lead to dangerous health consequences and in some cases, death.
From above, five categories of child abuse can be identified; physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, emotional abuse and exploitation (who.int, 2011). 1.0 Causes of child abuse Mistreatment in society results from different causes which puts the child at risk of child abuse.
These theories with related therapies include the cognitive behavior therapy, the existential therapy, and the family systems theory. Psychologists and other mental health professionals have adapted various applications of these theories on substance abuse patients.
The drugs that are most likely to be abused by athletes are anabolic steroids and hormones. These drugs promote muscle growth, enhancing performance through higher physical performance. The intention of the user in participating in this kind of abuse is to get a step above the competition through physical strength and condition.
However, opioids have several side effects, which make them health hazard if abused. These side effects include drowsiness; vomiting, nausea, restlessness, constipation, hallucination, and hypotension. Used alone or in combination with other pain management substances, opioids could be a basis for adequate pain relief.
The mission of the Agency is to reduce the effect of substance abuse in Nevada. The organization aims at implementing programs and creating awareness in the community to reduce Substance abuse. The state of Nevada is among the hotspots in terms of substance and drug abuse. The objectives of the organization include coordination and implementation of programs relating to substance and drug abuse.
At present, there are many respectable doctors, pastors, lawyers, and politicians who are addicted to cocaine. Fighting this drug remains a challenge because its closeted addicts are embarrassed about their addiction and will not admit their failings to others.
In addition, finding the actual motives of the perpetrator is a challenging task since human behavior is not standardized; it is possible for a person to respond to a situation differently than normally under certain conditions, such as the substance abuse.
d reveal; it is likewise more thought provoking in terms of the universal effectiveness of various treatments that have been proposed and recommended through time (Doweiko, 2011). The National Institute on Drug Abuse under the National Institutes of Health is tasked to monitor
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