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Diabetes Type 1 - Research Paper Example

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Running Head: Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 [Name] [University] Diabetes Type 1 Introduction One hundred seventy-six thousand and five hundred people under the age of 20 years had diabetes in 2005, which accounts for 0.22% of all disease in this age group in the United States (U.S.) (National Diabetes Statistics, 2005)…
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Diabetes Type 1
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Download file to see previous pages The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are over 177 million cases worldwide and this number will increase to at least 370 million by 2030 (Gad et al., 2003). Further, the disease is associated with a series of secondary health complications. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is characterized by persistent and variable hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels). Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM), also known as insulin-dependent DM, childhood DM, or juvenile-onset DM, most commonly presents in children and adolescents. The typical age of onset is less than 25 years (Pepper, 2006). Also, in contrast to T2DM, T1DM occurrence is typically in individuals who are lean rather than obese (Myers, 2005). T1DM constitutes approximately 10% of all individuals with DM and occurs mainly in populations of Europe and North America (Champe et al., 2005; Gillespie, 2006). T1DM is increasing in incidence globally at a rate of about 3% per year (Champe et al., 2005). Like all types of DM, T1DM is associated with increased risk for and a high incidence of certain complications. Hence, DM in general has been considered a syndrome of metabolic abnormalities (i.e. metabolic disorder of glucose, protein, lipids, water and electrolytes), microvascular disease (i.e. retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy), and macrovascular disease (i.e. ...
T1DM patients are often young at the time of diagnosis. Although the pathogenic factors are active early on, complications usually develop later as the disease progresses and are not as common during early stages. Etiology of T1DM Type 1 diabetes is the result of the loss of ? cells, which subsequently leads to insufficient secretion of insulin. It is generally accepted that Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) is an autoimmune disease. The exact cause or causes of the disease are still unclear, however, a combination of genetic and environmental factors seem to be involved. Evidence for a genetic susceptibility to IDDM is shown through family studies. Approximately 6% of siblings of people with T1D will also develop the disease, as compared with a prevalence of .4% in the general population (Levin and Tomer 2003; Leoni 2003). Children of diabetics also have a higher risk of acquiring diabetes: about 3-6% of diabetic offspring get diabetes, compared with .4% of the general population. Intriguingly, the gender of the diabetic parent also seems to contribute to disease transmission, with offspring of diabetic fathers being at a greater risk (about 9%) than those of diabetic mothers (about 3%). Data from twin studies (i.e. Levin and Tomer 2003; Leoni 2003) also seem to strongly suggest a genetic predisposition to IDDM. Concordance rates for monozygotic twins vary between 35 - 70%, while the concordance rates for dizygotic twins is about 11 %. These rates increase with the time since proband diagnosis; for example, concordance is 43% within 12 years of proband diagnosis, and 50% within 40 years. Age of proband diagnosis also seems to be a crucial factor: the concordance rate for twins of ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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