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Comparing different theoretical approaches for two disabilities - Research Paper Example

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Comparative Essay of Disabilities Among School Children Introduction There are many disabilities which children and adolescents suffer and educationists dealing with them need to be aware of those conditions to impart special training to those children and help them turn into confident individuals as adults…
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Comparing different theoretical approaches for two disabilities
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Download file to see previous pages Definition Dyspraxia or developmental dyspraxia is 'an impairment or immaturity of the organisation of movement' (Dyspraxia Foundation, 2009). It is also known as 'developmental coordination disorder' and 'clumsy child syndrome'. According to the American Psychiatric Association (2001), developmental dyspraxia is "marked impairment of motor coordination which significantly interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily living and is not due to a general medical condition." Dyslexia, also known as developmental reading disorder is the most common childhood learning disability which primarily manifests in school going children. There is no single definition that exists for dyslexia. However, those who know about the condition and have worked with dyslexic children are in a position to easily identify the condition. According to the NINDS (2009), dyslexia is defined as "a brain-based type of learning disability that specifically impairs a person's ability to read." The World Federation of Neurology (cited in British Dyslexics, 2009) defines this condition as "a disorder manifested by difficulties in learning to read, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence and socio-cultural opportunity." The British Dyslexics (2009) puts the definition as "Intelligent, bright or even gifted individuals, that for no obvious reason, struggle to learn through the medium of written or spoken language." Other commonly used definitions include "learning difficulty characterized by problems with written or spoken language such as reading, writing, spelling, speaking, or listening" and "congenital disturbance of brain function causing a variety of learning difficulties, especially relating to reading, writing and spelling" (British Dyslexics, 2009). Magnitude of problem Developmental dyspraxia is mostly diagnosed in childhood. It occurs in 2 to 5% of children between the ages 5 to 11. It affects boys more than girls (Dorset Country Council, 1998). Infact, boys account for 70% of dyspraxic cases. The most important symptoms of dyspraxia are poor motor coordination, clumsiness, lack of movement fluency and the difficulty in application of motor skills mastered in one setting to another setting. Dyslexia affects about 80% of all individuals diagnosed to be having learning disabilities (Shaywitz et al, 2007). When only dyslexia is present, the condition is characterized by an unexpected difficulty in reading in otherwise intelligent children who are motivated and have ample learning opportunities considered necessary for accurate and fluent reading (Fisher et al, 2001). The incidence of dyslexia has been estimated to be about 8 to 15% (Earl, 2006). Although epidemiological studies show equal incidence of this condition in both girls and boys, boys are 3-4 times more likely to be referred for reading problems (Tynan, 2006). All dyslexic children share some common aspects enabling them to be easily diagnosed. The increased awareness of dyslexia has led to many parent and teacher teaching programs, mostly based on multi-sensory learning. Mechanism of disability The exact cause of developmental dyspraxia is unknown. Neurological immaturity is the most probable cause of this condition. Failure of the neurones of the right hemisphere of the brain to form precise pathways during the development of brain leads to lack of accuracy in the instruction of the brain for performing movements (Bowens and Smith, 1999). ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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