“How Stress Affects the Immune System and Overall Health” Stress is the concept which is not new for anyone and the prevailing trends of stress and its effects on each age group and social institutions make it more popular among the general public. However, a concise definition and conceptual depth of this term is unknown to many…
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This weakness of body defenses against stress may end up creating negative outcomes on the physical, mental, internal and psychological health of people (Oxington 2005, p. 174). Stress also plays a vital role in changing and affecting immune system of human beings. This paper further analyzes how stress affects human beings’ overall health and immune system. A number of studies suggest that immune system is highly susceptible to stress and related issues. The effects on immune system are intense enough to reduce the effective of the system and consequently making human body more prone to illnesses. Stress hormones which are released in the bloodstream restrain the immune system to work efficiently and normally which in turn results in higher risks of illness. Psychoneuroimmunology is the study area of health psychology which mainly deals with the issues related to psychology and their effects on the immune system. Stress related issues and their influence on immune system forms a major area of research and discussion in this field. Research indicates that external stressors can be involved in the immune system in a number of different manners (Passer & Smith 2006, p 493). One way is the eviction of a variety of chemicals by extended fibers from the brain into lymph tissues. These chemicals bind to receptors of white blood cell and consequently affect the working efficiency of immune system. Moreover, stress hormones like cortisol and epinephrine, also bind to the cells affecting the overall immune system functioning. An effort to cope up with the stressors at times results in inappropriate behavioral patterns like substance abuse and insufficient sleep time which damages immunity (taylor 2006). In a healthy heart it is seen that a series of event occurs to pump blood out of the heart to the different parts of body. Cardiac Cycle consists of Atrial Systole, Atrial Diastole, Ventricular Systole and Ventricular Diastole. Systole in general is used for the contraction of heart muscles and diastole is used for the relaxation of the heart muscles. Atrial Diastole occurs when the atrial muscles relax and Ventricular Diastole happens when the ventricular muscles relax (Hall et al., 2011). Similarly Ventricular Systole occurs when the ventricular muscles contract and atrial systole occurs when the atrial muscles contract. Systole of 120mm Hg is considered to be excellent along with a Diastolic pressure of 80. Systolic pressure of 130 with Diastolic pressure of 85 is fair. Above this pressure it can be said that the pressures are poor. However the worst condition can be when the Systolic Pressure reaches 180 mm Hg and the Diastolic pressure reaches 110 respectively. Stress and sudden emergencies result in “secretion of excess adrenaline and noradrenaline, which causes sudden and considerable elevation in systolic blood pressure” (Khan 2005, p. 178) Blood pressure and stress are related directly or indirectly. Researchers have found that stress either directly or indirectly plays a role in increasing the blood pressure. Stress causes an individual to go through an unhealthy routine and this may cause several hormones to be released. These hormones then cause constriction of vessels which would raise the blood pressure in an individual. Hence it can be said that blood pressure and stress are somehow related. It is commonly believed that high blood
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To break this analysis down further, PNI constitutes the analysis of the dynamic coalescence of “consciousness (psycho)”, the “brain and central nervous system (neuro)”, and the body’s protection from “infection and internal aberrant cell division (immunology)” (Reddy, 2010).
The research study presented focuses on levels of stress brought about by living in a modern society. The implication is that living in the suburbs does not insulate an individual or family from being affected by stress. Residents in counties surrounding the metropolitan Chicago area are evaluated, by investigating the various causes associated with stress.
Usage begun in the 1930’s through Hans Selye’s work and became popular in recent decades. Stress refers to the results due to failure of an organism (either human or others) to respond effectively in respect of physical, mental or emotional demands. These demands may be actual or imagined or a combination of both.
It is not uncommon to read in medical journals, for instance, how stress are linked to negative mood states, poor employee performance, and the ability to cope and function within personal relationships. The number of effects that demonstrate how stress leads to several mental disorders are diverse and numerous.
It is significant to note that the response is not specific in nature and does not target specific pathogens. In the first response, the IgM will be responsible for the detoxification of the pathogen by the antibodies. IgM is efficient after the initial attack by the pathogen.
There are different types of stress. These are eustress, acute, episodic or chronic stresses. Eustress is sourced after exhausting self from exciting events, adventures or euphoric circumstance (Scott, 2011). Acute stress can either be sourced for eustress or out of distress.
Stress has been found to have both beneficial as well as deleterious effects on the human body depending on the nature and duration of the stressor. In most cases, however, the harmful effects outweigh the benefits of stress on the immune system which is especially the case in chronic stressful conditions.
One of the profound changes is in the immune system. The immune system, which is responsible for protecting the boy against infection and diseases, becomes less effective with age. The body is vulnerable to infections and diseases. The vulnerability of the immune system in old age is increased by stress.
The biomedical model provides a clearly articulated scientific framework for understanding the disease process and mechanisms of remedy, and it excels at treating infectious diseases and acute or traumatic injuries. The Biomedical Theory analyzes symptoms ad produce a diagnosys, that is need to be treated.
Stress is overlooked by many as unimportant in the upkeep of mental health, yet research shows that stress from the work environment is a large contributor to health problems. A proper education in the subject would
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