# Introduction to earth science - Research Paper Example

Summary
1 Earthquakes Earthquakes are said to occur as a result of the elastic strain of the part of Earth which is suddenly released by slip on a fault (Brown et al., 1992; Grotzinger et al., 2006). And the termed used to describe the series of events that eventually led to an occurrence of an earthquake is seismic cycle…

## Extract of sample "Introduction to earth science"

Download file to see previous pages Figure 1 below shows some markers like inter-seismic, co-seismic and post-seismic stages in the Earth that often lead to the happening of an earthquake. 2 The best approach for measuring the size of an earthquake is by determining the orientation of the fault, the direction of the slip, and the area of the fault that was affected during the earthquake (Brown et al., 1992). Through this process, it will be possible to estimate the amplitude of the waves generated by the earthquake by considering the area of the fault that broke and the magnitude of the slip caused by the vibration. In other words, earthquake sizes are currently estimated based on the amplitude of their seismic waves (Brown et al., 1992; Grotzinger et al., 2006). Earthquake magnitudes are measured on the Richter Scales. The figure 2 below show the relationship among the magnitude of an earthquake, the area of a fault that broke in the earthquake, the amount of slip in an earthquake, and the amount of strain energy released in the earthquake (Brown et al., 1992) Magnitude Fault Area (km2) Fault Length (km) Slim (m) Energy (joule) Number/year 3 0.15 0.4 0.008 2x109 100,000 4 1.5 1.2 0.025 6x1010 15000 5 15 4 0.08 2x1012 3000 6 150 12 0.25 6x1013 100 7 1500 40 0.8 2x1015 20 8 1.5x104 120 2.5 6x1016 2 9 1.5x105 400 8 2x1018 Figure 2: Courtesy of Brown et al., 1992. 3 Because of the ways they affect human activities, earthquakes have been subjected to series of studies. One important aspect of the studies is to identify the causes of an earthquake, its size and its overall implications in the areas where it has struck. The old technique of analyzing these issues concentrate on the first seismic waves that emanate from an earthquake occurrence. These first seismic waves are referred to as first motions (Brown et al., 1992; Grotzinger et al., 2006). The first motions are then observed from a distant and analyzed to determine the focal mechanism of the earthquake. However, modern method of studying of earthquakes utilizes sophisticated analysis that may be difficult to explain because of its technical requirements. Lately, scientists are studying the impacts of earthquakes on the environments. Some of the questions experts are asking include but are not restricted the following: (i) Do earthquake cause social hygienic problems whenever it occur? (ii) How do earthquake affect the economy of a particular place where it has occurred. Some answers have been offered to explain the implications of earthquakes in our world; but some experts are still digging for more facts to identify the actual economic cost of an earthquake, and how such a catastrophe can be mitigated in the future (Brown et al., 1992). The most important thing about earthquake is finding the most efficient way to ignite alarm system to the people immediately it strikes. This would be able to minimize both human and economic losses the situation would have caused. In the developed 4 countries, policy makers are spending a lot of money to find out the most applicable earthquake signals that would encourage people to follow evacuation procedures as soon as the earthquakes occurred (Grotzinger et al., 2006). Countries like Indonesia and Japan where the occurrence of earthquakes seem to be once in every other week are constantly seeking the final solutions to the earthquake signal system so as to improve both the pre- and post-occurrence incidents, and subsequently save more lives and protect properties ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
• APA
• MLA
• CHICAGO
(“Introduction to earth science Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5250 words”, n.d.)
(Introduction to Earth Science Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5250 Words)
https://studentshare.org/family-consumer-science/1407207-introduction-to-earth-science.
“Introduction to Earth Science Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/family-consumer-science/1407207-introduction-to-earth-science.
Click to create a comment or rate a document

## CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Introduction to earth science

### Earth and Space Science

... A Journey to the Edge of the Universe Even if one has gone as far as a billion kilometers fromthe Earth into the outer space at the aim of having a concrete grasp of the universe, at least to beyond the Milky Way galaxy, it would take roughly another 20,000 kilometers to unravel what lies after the outskirts of the solar system from a point where visual contact with the human planet is lost. According to the collective findings featured in the National Geographic with the ultimate aid of the space probe, the journey begins at reaching 400,000 kilometers from home or approximately three days in spacecraft to land upon that spherical region which appears like a deserted battlefield. The moon, bombarded by millions of meteorites... and...
3 Pages(750 words)Assignment

### Earth Science Class

...? EARTH SCIENCES & Section Number of EARTH SCIENCES: - Discuss the formation and types of fog. Fog is termed as the collection or accumulation of dewdrops (water droplets) which are present in the earth’s atmosphere (Ahrens, 1991). It is important to know that fog is a typical form of a cloud but the term “Fog” is used to differentiate the thin-line difference between a cloud and a fog. A fog is a result of the water vapors accumulated from the water sources present on the ground like a lake or marsh bodies as well as the ocean which give rise to fog. In other words, they are low-lying clouds (Allred, 2009). Formation of a fog depends on the variation...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

### Reflaction Paper (Earth Science)

...?Reflecting on the as a whole, what elements of the did you find the most challenging, and why?  Of all of the components of the I found the laboratory assignments to be very challenging. In the laboratory, I was unfamiliar with the equipment and unsure of the procedures. The instruction sheets helped, as did others in the lab, but I spent many frustrating hours trying to do the assigned work. I think the instructions need to be better written, more clear, with easier to understand examples. Which areas would you have liked to explore in more depth? I found the discussions about the tectonic plates to be fascinating. I especially liked the parts about the shifting of the tectonic plates and the natural disaster results. I would... on the as a ...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

### Earth and Space Science

...?Earth and Space Science Remote sensing of the atmosphere is very essential for the risk-free navigation of airways and weather forecasting of a region over a particular span of time. The process of remote sensing works on the principle of emission and reflection of electromagnetic radiations through the changing medium of gases present in the atmosphere. Instruments connected to aircrafts and space based platforms of satellite devises perform the function of remote sensing with the analysis of the electronic data recorded during the emission of such radiation for the establishment of forecast ideas. This is a process involving the transmission of radio waves of different frequency through different zones...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

### Earth Science

...Food chain is a representation of the energy transfers from one organism to another. It starts from a producer, usually plants, which are autotrophs that can harness light energy to form organic compounds. Plants are then used by primary consumers, or calves, for energy. These herbivores are then consumed by carnivores, such as humans. Upon death, these carnivores are decomposed by microorganisms into simpler compounds that can be utilized by the producers by nourishment. Geographers look at organisms in terms of how they are distributed on Earth. Usually, their association with other animals, such as that depicted in a food chain, gives an impression as to the place or habitat a particular food chain is present. As to...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

### Earth Science movie review

...Earth Science What was this film about? What was the premise of the story? Armageddon was a film filmed in the year 1980it was directed by Michael Bay and shot by Disneys. This film is about an asteroid compared to the size of Texas being in a collision course with the Earth. An American organisation NASA brings together a team of oil drillers who are the best in the world (Frederic 14). NASA plans to send them to deep core driller in the world to plant a nuclear warhead about 800 feet inside it. The objectives of the NASA is to make sure that the warhead blows the asteroids in to two pieces, of which tey will all fly back to the earth surface. Are any of the characters...
3 Pages(750 words)Movie Review

### Earth Science

...by the Earth’s bovine population have an even greater impact upon overall CO2 levels than all human activity within any given year. However, this should not be seen to delegitimize the processes whereby humans can provide additional negative impacts upon the global environment. Due to the fact that the Earth is ultimately a closed system, it can only integrate a certain amount of change before negative impacts are seen. As such the Earth’s ecological system might be able to integrate with volcanic eruptions or the methane gas produced by cows; however, further integration of the ever-increasing levels of human CO2 emissions is likely well beyond the capabilities of the system as a whole....
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

### Degree Plan

...to analyze historical events. They provide a wide-range of knowledge that will contribute to my overall degree plan, and fulfill my personal interest in history. Dynamic Earth: Introduction to Earth Science provided me the ability to understand the Earth in a more comprehensive manner. I was able to identify key geological features, cloud patterns, and a variety of elements within the Earth. With this knowledge it diversified my criminal justice major, and made me intrigued by science in general. I was never interested in science prior to this course, and this course opened my eyes to a whole new...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

### Earth Science and Society

...﻿Question # 1 The four individuals attributed to the development of modern astronomy after the initial developments by Copernicus are Galileo Galilei (1564- 1642), Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) Isaac Newton (1642 – 1727), and Albert Einstein (1879 to 1955). Galileo’s discoveries were on the fields of both physics and astronomy, he is considered to be the founding father of modern science. He was the first to invest and use the telescope. Through the telescope he discovered the phases of Venus and the moons of Jupiter. Kepler through kepler’s laws, paved the way for developing the field of celestial mechanics. He specifically described the planet’s revolution around the sun. Newton contributed to astronomy and physics by coming... up with the...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

### Earth Science wk7

...Earth Science This success story belongs to the time when the Empire Building in New York went green, one window after the other. It was amonumental task especially because it involved replacing each of the 6,514 windows which amounted to more than 26,000 panes of glass. The going green debated basically meant that the Empire State Building was ready for an overhaul. Since this is a very old structure, nothing of this stature has ever taken place. It has made people realize that almost anything is possible if the willpower is there. From an environmental perspective, it gives the commoners food for thought that if they apply themselves whole-heartedly towards the cause of the environment, there would be...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment